Heike Kamerlingh Onnes — versiyalar orasidagi farq

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vekifikatsiya, imlo, replaced: ==Tanlangan asarlari== → == Tanlangan asarlari ==, l'é → lʼé (2) using AWB
k (vekifikatsiya, imlo, replaced: ==Tanlangan asarlari== → == Tanlangan asarlari ==, l'é → lʼé (2) using AWB)
| awards = {{no wrap|[[Matteucci Medal]] <small>(1910)</small><br>[[Rumford Medal]] {{small|(1912)}}<br />[[Nobel Prize in Physics]] {{small|(1913)}}<br />[[Franklin Medal]] {{small|(1915)}}}}
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'''Heyke Kammerling-Onnes''' ({{lang-nl|Heike Kamerlingh Onnes}}) — [[Gollandlar|golland]] fiziki va kimyogari. Tarixda ilk bora, past haroratlar fizikasida amaliy natijalarga erishgan olim hisoblanadi. Uning o‘z davri uchun rekord hisoblangan 0.9 [[Kelvin (oʻlchov birligi)|Kelvin]] haroratga erishgani va bu orqali suyuq [[Geliy|geliy]] olish usulini kashf etgani uchun, [[Fizika|fizika]] bo‘yicha [[1913-yil]]gi [[Nobel mukofoti]] bilan taqdirlangan. Shu tufayli ham uning ilmiy doiralardagi hazilomuz unvoni (''Janob Mutlaq nol'') bo‘lgan.
== Tarjimai holi ==
Kammerling-Onnes [[1853-yil]]ning [[21-sentyabr]] kuni, [[Niderlandlar|Gollandiya]]ning [[Gröningen]] shaxrida tug‘ilgan<ref name="nobel">{{cite web|url=http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1913/onnes-bio.html|title=The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes|publisher=Nobel Media AB|accessdate=24 April 2012}}</ref>. O‘rta taʼlimni o‘z shahridagi maktabda tamomlagach, [[1870-yil]]da Groningen universitetining [[Fizika]] va [[Matematika]] bo‘limiga o‘qishga kiradi. Keyinroq oliy taʼlimni [[Heydelberg universiteti|Geydelberg universiteti]]da, mashhur olimlar [[Kirxgof Gustav Robert|Kirxgof]] va [[Bunzen Robert Vilgelm|Bunzen]]lar qo‘l ostida davom ettirgan. [[1873-yil]]da u yana Groningenga qaytib keladi. [[1878-yil|1878]]-[[1882-yil]]lar davomida Kammerling-Onnes, Delfta universitetida maʼruzalar o‘qiy boshlagan. [[1882-yil]]da uni, Gollandiyaning eng mashhur oliy taʼlim muassasalaridan biri bo‘lgan [[Leyden universiteti]]ga, amaliy fizika fanlari professori lavozimiga taklif etishadi va Kammerling-Onnes ushbu lavozimni qabul qiladi.
# hamda, moddalarning magnit xossalarini o‘rganish masalalarini o‘z ichiga olgan.
 
[[1911-yil]]ga kelib, Kammerling-Onnes, [[Simob|simob]]ning elektr o‘tkazuvchanligi 4.2 Kelvin haroratda birdaniga keskin kamayishini aniqlashga muvaffq boʻlgan. Ushbu hodisa fizikada [[Oʻta oʻtkazuvchanlik|o‘ta-o‘tkazuvchanlik]] nomini olgan<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://ilorentz.org/history/cold/DelftKes_HKO_PT.pdf |title=The Discovery of Superconductivity|author=van Delft, Dirk and Kes, Peter |date=September 2010|pages=38–43|journal=Physics Today|doi=10.1063/1.3490499|volume=63}}</ref> . Bir yil o‘tib, u suyuq geliyning [[O‘ta oquvchanlik|o‘ta oquvchanlik]] xossasini kashf etadi<ref>van Delft, Dirk (2007) [http://www.dwc.knaw.nl/wp-content/HSSN/2007-10-Van%20Delft-Freezing%20Physics.pdf ''Freezing physics, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the quest for cold''], Edita, Amsterdam, ISBN 9069845199.</ref>
. Ushbu masalalar yuzasidan tekshiruvlarni davom ettirib, [[1913-yil]]da, kuchli magnit maydoni ham toklar taʼsirida o‘ta-o‘tkazuvchanlikning buzilishi hodisasini aniqlaydi. Aynan shu yili Heyke Kammerling-Onnes, ''Natijasi suyuq geliy ishlab chiqarishni yo‘lga qo‘yilishiga sabab bo‘lgan, o‘ta past haroratlardagi moddalarning xossalarini tadqiq qilgani uchun'' fizika bo‘yicha Nobel mukofotiga loyiq ko‘rilgan. Past haroratlar fizikasida erishgan yutuqlari sharafiga u, hamkasblari orasida (''Janob Mutlaq nol'') taxallusi bilan atala boshlangan<ref>{{Cite journal | doi = 10.1098/rstl.1862.0001| title = On the Influence of Temperature on the Electric Conducting Power of Metals| journal = Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London| volume = 152| pages = 1–27| year = 1862| last1 = Matthiessen | first1 = A.| last2 = von Bose | first2 = M.}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal | doi = 10.1098/rstl.1864.0004| title = On the Influence of Temperature on the Electric Conducting-Power of Alloys| journal = Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London| volume = 154| pages = 167–200| year = 1864| last1 = Matthiessen | first1 = A.| last2 = Vogt | first2 = C.}}</ref>.
 
 
== Meros ==
Uning o‘zi tashkillagan ajoyib ilmiy laboratoriyasi va ko‘p sonli mutaxassis shogirdlari, keyingi davrlarda ham ilm-fanning turli sohalarida yangidan-yangi yutuqlarga erishib, Kammerling-Onnes maktabining nufuzini yanada ortishiga sabab bo‘lishgan. Xususan uning eng iqtidorli shogirdlaridan bir bo‘lgan olim Willem Hendrik Keesom, [[1926-yil]]da, tarixda ilk bora qattiq holatdagi [[Geliy|geliy]]ni olishga erishgan.
 
Hozirda, Heyke Kammerling-Onnes tashkil etgan Leyden kriogen laboratoriyasi, uning nomi bilan ataladi; shuningdek, o‘sha laboratoriyada, olimning o‘zi loyihalagan mashhur kriogen qurilmasi namoyishga qo‘yilgan bo‘lib, ushbu qurilmaga ham, uning nomi berilgan. Bundan tashqari, Oydagi kraterlardan biri, Kammerling-Onnes sharafiga, uning nomi bilan ataladi<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1021/ed079p697 |last=Howard|first=Irmgard |year=2002|title=H Is for Enthalpy, Thanks to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and Alfred W. Porter|journal=Journal of Chemical Education|publisher=ACS Publications|volume=79|issue=6|pages=697|url=http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ed079p697|bibcode = 2002JChEd..79..697H }}</ref>.
 
== Tanlangan asarlari ==
* Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "Nieuwe bewijzen voor de aswenteling der aarde." Ph.D. dissertation. Groningen, Netherlands, 1879.
* Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "Algemeene theorie der vloeistoffen." ''Amsterdam Akad. Verhandl''; 21, 1881.
* Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "On the Cryogenic Laboratory at Leyden and on the Production of Very Low Temperature." ''Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden''; 14, 1894.
* Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "Théorie générale de l'étatlʼétat fluide." ''Haarlem Arch. Neerl.''; 30, 1896.
* Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "Further experiments with liquid helium. C. On the change of electric resistance of pure metals at very low temperatures, etc. IV. The resistance of pure mercury at helium temperatures." ''Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden''; No. 120b, 1911.
* Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "Further experiments with liquid helium. D. On the change of electric resistance of pure metals at very low temperatures, etc. V. The disappearance of the resistance of mercury." ''Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden''; No. 122b, 1911.
* <nowiki>''Волков В. А., Явелов Б. Е.'' Переписка А. Г. Столетова с Г. Камерлинг-Оннесом // Исследования по истории физики и механики. 1990. — {{М.}}: Наука, 1990. — С. 186—197. ISBN 5-02-000738-2</nowiki>
* {{Книга:Храмов Ю. А.:Физики|часть = Камерлинг-Оннес Гейке (Kamerlingh Onnes Heike)|с =125|ссылка часть = 651}}
* {{cite journal | last = de Bruyn Ouboter | first = Rudolf |date=March 1997 | title = Heike Kamerlingh Onnes’sOnnesʼs Discovery of Superconductivity | journal = Scientific American | volume = 276 | issue = 3 | pages = 98–103 | doi = 10.1038/scientificamerican0397-98}}
* {{cite journal | last = Laesecke | first = Arno |date=May–June 2002 | title = Through Measurement to Knowledge: The Inaugural Lecture of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1882) | journal = Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology | volume = 107 | issue = 3 | pages = 261–277 | url = http://nvl.nist.gov/pub/nistpubs/jres/107/3/j73lae.pdf | format = PDF | doi=10.6028/jres.107.021}}
* {{cite journal | last = Reif-Acherman | first = Simón |date=June 2004 | title = Heike Kamerlingh Onnes: Master of Experimental Technique and Quantitative Research | journal = Physics in Perspective | volume = 6 | issue = 2 | pages = 197–223 | doi = 10.1007/s00016-003-0193-8 | url = http://www.springerlink.com/content/abn2kb4vrwx5yc2n/fulltext.pdf | format = PDF |bibcode = 2004PhP.....6..197R }}
== Havolalar ==
{{commons}}
* [http://www.orbita.uz/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=544:kammerling-onnes-heyke&catid=42:horijiy-olimlar&Itemid=63| Kammerling Onnes Heyke - orbita.uz saytida]
* [http://n-t.ru/nl/fz/kamerlingh.htm Камерлинг-Оннес (Kamerlingh-Onnes), Хейке. Биография] на сайте электронной библиотеки «Наука и техника»
* [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1913/ Информация с сайта Нобелевского комитета]{{ref-en}}
* [http://www.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl/history/KOL_archive/Communications/index.html Communications from the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory] (1885–1898).
* [http://ilorentz.org/history/KOL_archive/dissertations/KamerlinghOnnes.html Ph.D. students] of Kamerlingh Onnes (1885-1924).
 
 
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