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Oʻzgarishlar

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„{{Xitoy iyerogliflari transkripsiya tizimlari}} '''Pinyín''' ({{lang-zh|拼音}}, ''pīnyīn''; rasmiy: {{lang-zh2|汉语拼音}}, ''Hànyǔ pīnyīn''...“ yozuvi orqali yangi sahifa yaratildi
{{Xitoy iyerogliflari transkripsiya tizimlari}}
'''Pinyín''' ({{lang-zh|拼音}}, ''pīnyīn''; rasmiy: {{lang-zh2|汉语拼音}}, ''Hànyǔ pīnyīn'', ''Xanyuy pinyin'', ya'ni "Xitoy tili tovushlarini yozish") – [[putunxua]] uchun [[romanlashtirish]] tizimi. [[Xitoy Xalq Respublikasi]]da rasmiy maqomga ega.<ref name="50th_birthday">{{cite web|publisher=[[Sinxua]]|date=2008-yil 11 fevral|title=Pinyin celebrates 50th birthday|url=http://www.china.org.cn/english/news/242463.htm|accessdate=2008-09-20|archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/618zmi5vH?url=http://www.china.org.cn/english/news/242463.htm|archivedate=2011-08-23|deadlink=no}}</ref>
2009-yil 1-yanvardan pinyin [[Xitoy respublikasi|Tayvan]]da rasmiy romanlashtirish standartiga aylandi.<ref name="pinyin_tt">{{cite web|publisher=Taipei Times|date=2008-yil 18-sentabr|title=Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009|url=http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2008/09/18/2003423528|accessdate=2008-09-20|archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/618zoe38M?url=http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2008/09/18/2003423528|archivedate=2011-08-23|deadlink=no}}</ref><ref name="pinyin_cp">{{cite web|publisher=The China Post|date=2008-yil 18-sentabr|title=Gov't to improve English-friendly environment|url=http://www.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/national/national%20news/2008/09/18/175155/Gov%27t-to.htm|accessdate=2008-09-20|archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/618zplw5a?url=http://www.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/national/national%20news/2008/09/18/175155/Gov%27t-to.htm|archivedate=2011-08-23|deadlink=yes}}</ref>.
Pinyin 1958-yilda qabul qilingan bo‘lib<ref name="50th_birthday" />, uning muallifi [[Chjou Yuguan]] hisoblanadi. 1979-yildan pinyin butun dunyoda XXRdagi nomlarni lotinchaga o‘girishning rasmiy vositasi sifatida qo‘llaniladi. U avval mavjud bo‘lgan [[Ueyd – Jaylz transkripsion tizimi|Ueyld – Jaylz]] va [[chjuin]] transkripsiyalarining o‘rnini bosdi.
Pinyin transkripsiya tizmi [[Xalqaro Standartlashtirish tashkiloti]] (ISO) tomonidan xitoy tilining asosiy lotincha transkripsiyasi sifatida ma’qullangan.
Pinyinda lotin alifbosining V belgisidan tashqari qolgan barcha belgilari ishtirok etadi, ularga Ü ([[Ü (lotincha)|u-umlyaut]] qo‘shilgan; kompyuterda yozishda V belgisi o‘rniga Ü belgisini ishlatish mumkin).
Pinyinda tovushlarni belgilash uchun [[diakritik belgilar]]dan foydalaniladi. Ulardan asosan o‘quv adabiyotlarida foydalaniladi. Lug‘atlarda pinyinda yozilgan so‘z oxirida tovush raqami qo‘yiladi, masalan: ''dong2'' yoki ''dong²'' (= ''dóng'').

== Shenlar yozilishi ==
Pinyin bo‘yicha [[Putunxua|Xitoy adabiy tili]]da [[shen]]lar (initsiallar, so‘z boshidagi undoshlar) yozilishi quyidagi jadvalda ko‘rib chiqiladi. Har bir katakning birinchi qatorida [[Xalqaro fonetik alifbo]] tizimi bo‘yicha, ikkinchi qatorda – pinyin bo‘yicha, uchinchi qatorda – o‘zbek lotin alifbosidagi ko‘rinishi berilgan (ayrim tovushlarni aniq ifodalash uchun o‘zbek kirill alifbosidan ham foydalanildi).

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
!
!colspan="2"|[[Lab undoshlari]]
!colspan="2"|[[Alveolyar undoshlar]]
!colspan="2"|[[Retrofleks undoshlar]]
!colspan="2"|[[Palatal undoshlar]]
!colspan="2"|[[Velyar undoshlar]]
|-
! [[Burun undoshlari]]
|colspan="2;" style="background: #ccf;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[m]}}<br>m <br>m
|colspan="2;" style="background: #cfc;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[n]}}<br>n <br>n
|colspan="2"|
|colspan="2"|
|colspan="2"|
|-
! [[Portlovchi undoshlar]]
|style="background: #ccf;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[p]}}<br>b <br>b
|style="background: #ccf;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[pʰ]}}<br>p <br>p
|style="background: #cfc;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[t]}}<br>d <br>d
|style="background: #cfc;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[tʰ]}}<br>t <br>t
|colspan="2"|
|colspan="2"|
|style="background: #fcc;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[k]}}<br>g <br>g
|style="background: #fcc;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[kʰ]}}<br>k <br>k
|-
! [[Affrikatlar]]
|colspan="2"|
|style="background: #ffc;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[ts]}}<br>z <br>tsz (цз)
|style="background: #ffc;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[tsʰ]}}<br>c <br>ts (ц)
|style="background: #cff;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[ʈʂ]}}<br>zh <br>chj
|style="background: #cff;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[ʈʂʰ]}}<br>ch <br>ch
|style="background: #fcf;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[tɕ]}}<br>j <br>tsz’ [цз(ь)]<ref group="i" name="two">Bundan keyingi undosh — ya/yu/ye.</ref>
|style="background: #fcf;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[tɕʰ]}}<br>q <br>ts’ [ц(ь)]<ref group="i" name="two"/>
|colspan="2"|
|-
! [[Frikativ undoshlar]]
|colspan="2" style="background: #ccf;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[f]}}<br>f <br>f
|colspan="2" style="background: #ffc;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[s]}}<br>s <br>s
|colspan="2" style="background: #cff;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[ʂ]}}<br>sh <br>sh
|colspan="2" style="background: #fcf;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[ɕ]}}<br>x <br>s’ [с(ь)]<ref group="i" name="two"/>
|colspan="2" style="background: #fcc;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[x]}}<br>h <br>x
|-
! [[Approksimantlar]]
|colspan="2" style="text-align: center;"| {{IPA|[w]}}<ref group="i">”w” harfi shen (initsial) yoki so‘nggi bo‘g‘inning boshi bo‘la oladi va [{{IPA|w}}] yoki [{{IPA|u}}] kabi talaffuz etiladi.</ref><br>w <br>vu
|colspan="2;" style="background: #cfc;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[l]}}<br>l <br>l
|colspan="2" style="background: #cff;text-align: center;"|{{IPA|[ɻ ~ ʐ]}}<ref group="i">{{IPA|/ɻ/}} fonetik jihatdan [{{IPA|ʐ}}] ([[jarangli retrofleks spirant]]) bo‘la oladi. Bu xitoy tilida gaplashuvchilar orasidagi individual farq hisoblanadi va ikki turli fonema borligini anglatmaydi.</ref><br>r <br> j (“ajdar” so‘zidagi)
|colspan="2" style="text-align: center;"| {{IPA|[j]}}<ref group="i">”u” harfi shen (initsial) yoki so‘nggi bo‘g‘inning boshi bo‘la oladi va [{{IPA|j}}] yoki [{{IPA|i}}] kabi talaffuz etiladi.</ref><br>y <br> ya/yu/ye<ref group="i"> O‘zidan keyingi unliga qarab o‘zgaradi.</ref>
|colspan="2"|
|}

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