Meksika: Versiyalar orasidagi farq

190 bayt olib tashlandi ,  1 yil oldin
Teglar: Qaytarildi Mobil tahrirlash Mobil dastur orqali tahrirlash
Teglar: Qaytarildi Mobil tahrirlash Mobil dastur orqali tahrirlash
The majority of the population is Mexican, consisting of Indians and ethnic groups, immigrants from Europe (mainly Spain), and Africans brought to plantations. More than half of the population are mestizos and mulattoes born of mixed marriages. Indigenous peoples have partially preserved their languages ​​and cultures. There are Spaniards, Basques, Germans, French, Italians and more. The official language is Spanish. 96% of believers are Catholics. 73% of the population lives in cities. Major cities: Mexico, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Leon, Ciudad Juarez.
 
== TarixiDate ==
In the territory of M. man lives from the Upper Paleolithic (20-15 thousand years BC). It has been home to one of the most advanced civilizations in the Western Hemisphere at various times. From the middle of the 1st millennium BC, the population began to settle down, and agriculture, handicrafts, and arts flourished. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Maya lived in northwestern Central America. In the second half of the 1st millennium, the Toltecs created a much higher culture in Central M. But this culture was destroyed by the Naua tribes in the early 2nd millennium. Among the Naua tribes were the Aztecs, who built what is now Mexico City and formed a large state in the 14th century, which in the 15th century became the most powerful state in Central and Southern M.C. Agriculture, handicrafts, construction techniques, and fine arts flourished here. In 1517 M. was conquered by the Spaniards. By the end of the 16th century, the territory of M. was completely conquered. A new Spanish viceroyalty was formed, and all power passed to the Spanish landowners. Most of the local population was deprived of their lands and became dependent on colonial rulers, landowners, and the Catholic Church. Famine and disease dried up the pillows of many Indians (there were about 25 million Indians at the time of the Spanish conquest, and by 1605 there were just over 1 million Indians). When there was a shortage of labor, many Negro slaves began to be brought in from Africa. The development of Mexican industry was hampered in various ways, many crops were banned, and the sale of salt, gunpowder, and tobacco became a state monopoly. The local people revolted against the colonialists several times. The Mexican nation began to take shape in the early 19th century as a result of the development of economic ties and the emergence of the domestic market and the awakening of national consciousness.
M. hududida odam yuqori paleolit (miloddan 20—15 ming yil oldin) davridan yashaydi. Bu yerda turli davrlarda Gʻarbiy yarim shardagi eng rivojlangan sivilizatsiyalardan biri mavjud boʻlgan. Miloddan avvalgi 1ming yillik oʻrtalaridan aholi oʻtroq hayot kechira boshlagan, dehqonchilik, hunarmandchilik, sanʼat taraqqiy etgan. Milod boshlarida Markaziy Amerikaning shimoli-gʻarbiy qismida mayya qabilalari yashagan. 1ming yillikning 2-yarmida Markaziy M.da tolteklar xiyla yuksak madaniyat yaratdilar. Lekin bu madaniyatni 2-ming yillikning boshlarida naua qabilalari barbod qildi. Naua qabilalari orasida atsteklar ham bor edi, ular hozirgi Mexiko shahrini barpo etdilar va 14-asrda yirik davlat tuzdilar, bu davlat 15-asrda Markaziy va Janubiy M.ning eng qudratli davlatiga aylandi. Bu yerda dehqonchilik, hunarmandchilik, qurilish texnikasi, tasviriy sanʼat birmuncha rivoj topdi. 1517 yil M.ni ispanlar bosib ola boshladilar. 16-asr oxiriga kelib M. xududi butunlay zabtetildi. Yangi Ispaniya vitseqirolligi tuzildi, butun hokimiyat ispan zamindorlari qoʻl ostiga oʻtdi. Mahalliy aholining aksar qismi oʻz yerlaridan mahrum etildi, mustamlaka hokimlari, zamindorlar va katolik cherkoviga tobe boʻlib qoldi. Ocharchilik, kasalliklar koʻplab indeyslarning yostigʻini quritdi (ispanlar zabt eta boshlagan paytda 25 mln.ga yaqin indeys boʻlgan boʻlsa, 1605 yilga kelganda 1mln. dan sal ortiq indeys qoldi). Ishchi kuchi yetishmay qolgach, Afrikadan koʻplab negr qullar keltirila boshladi. Meksika sanoatining rivojlanishiga turli yoʻllar bilan toʻsqinlik qilindi, koʻpchilik ekinlarni ekishni taqiqlab, tuz, porox, tamaki mahsulotlari sotish davlat monopoliyasiga aylantirildi. Mahalliy xalq mustamlakachilarga qarshi bosh koʻtarib bir necha bor qoʻzgʻolon qildi. Iqtisodiy aloqalarning rivojlanishi va ichki bozorning vujudga kelishi, milliy ongning uygʻonishi taʼsirida 19-asrning boshlarida meksikan millati tarkib topa boshladi.
 
During the Spanish War of Independence (1810–26), especially in 1810–15, a peasant uprising led by M. Hidalgo and H. M. Morelos took place in the United States, which was brutally suppressed. The revolution of 1820-23 in Spain and the success of the patriots of the Spanish colonies in South America led to a resurgence of the people's liberation movement in M. The movement, led by A. Iterbude, was supported by the general public. In 1821 M. was declared an independent state, and in 1824 a republic. In 1845, the United States occupied Texas, and as a result of the American-Mexican War of 1846-48, it occupied almost half of the country's territory. The Anglo-French-Spanish intervention against M. was met with heroic opposition from the Mexican people and ended in the defeat of the interventions. General P. Diaz served as president from 1877-80 and 1884-1911; it was during this period that civil liberties were trampled on and Congress lost its significance. From the beginning of the 20th century, a revolutionary upsurge began. In 1910, the peasant movement peaked. F. Villa, E. Zapata were the greatest leaders of the peasant movement. In 1910-17 a revolution took place in M. In May 1911, the Dias regime was overthrown. A new constitution was adopted.
Amerikadagi ispan mustamlakalarining mustaqillik uchun olib borgan urushi davrida (1810—26), xususan, 1810—15 yillarda M.da M. Idalgo va X. M. Morelos rahbarligida dehqonlar qoʻzgʻoloni boʻlib oʻtdi, bu qoʻzgʻolon sha-fqatsiz bostirildi. Ispaniyadagi 1820—23 yillar inqilobi va Janubiy Amerikadagi Ispaniya mustamlakalari vatanparvarlarining muvaffaqiyatlari M.da xalq ozodlik harakatining yangidan koʻtarilishiga sabab boʻldi. A. Iterbude boshchiligidagi harakat keng xalq ommasi tomonidan koʻllab-quvvatlandi. 1821 yil M. mustaqil davlat, 1824 yil esa respublika deb eʼlon qilindi. 1845 yil AQSH Texasni, 1846—48 yillardagi Amerika-Meksika urushi natijasida mamlakat hududining qariyb yarmini bosib oddi. M.ga qarshi uyushtirilgan Angliya-Fransiya-Yspaniya intervensiyasi meksikan xalqining qahramonona qarshiligiga uchrab, interventlarning magʻlubiyati bilan tugadi. 1877-80 va 1884-1911 yillarda general P. Dias prezident boʻlib turdi; ana shu davrda fuqarolar ozodligi oyoq osti qilindi, kongress oʻz ahamiyatini yoʻqotdi. 20-asrning boshlaridan inqilobiy yuksalish roʻy bera boshladi. 1910 yilda dehqonlar harakati avj olib ketdi. F. Vilya, E. Sapata dehqonlar harakatining eng yirik rahbarlari edilar. 1910—17 yillarda M.da inqilob boʻlib oʻtdi. 1911 yil may oyida Dias rejimi agʻdarib tashlandi. Yangi konstitutsiya qabul qilindi.
 
During the world economic crisis of 1929-33, the revolutionary movement intensified and L. Cardenas-Idelrio, a member of the radical wing of the National Revolutionary Party, was elected president. His government (1934-40) underwent significant changes, including land reform.
1929—33 yillardagi jahon iktisodiy boʻhroni davrida inqilobiy harakat kuchaydi va milliy inqilobiy partiyaning radikal qanoti vakili L. Kardenas-idelrio prezident qilib saylandi. Uning hukumati (1934—40) mu-him oʻzgarishlar qildi, yer islohoti oʻtkazdi.
 
At the beginning of World War II, the M. government stated that it was neutral; but in May 1942 he declared war on the Nazi bloc. In the post-war years, M.'s economy continued to grow. However, the situation in the village has not changed. Beginning in the 1960s, the governments of L. Mateos (1958-64) and D. Ordas (1964-70) set out to strengthen the national economy. He came to power in 1970. To improve the situation, the Echeverria government passed the Land Reform Act (1971), a new election law (1972), a law to encourage local capital investment and the regulation of foreign capital (1973), and introduced five working days per week for civil servants. M. expanded his foreign trade relations with Western European countries, Japan and several countries in Latin America.
Ikkinchi jahon urushining boshlarida M. hukumati betaraf ekanligini bildirdi; lekin 1942 yil may oyida fashistlar blokiga qarshi urush eʼlon qildi. Urushdan keyingi yillarda M. iqtisodiyoti yuksala bordi. Biroq qishloqda ahvol oʻzgarmadi. 60-yillardan boshlab L. Mateos (1958—64) va D. Ordas (1964—70) hukumatlari milliy iqtisodiyotni mustahkamlash yoʻlini tutdi. 1970 yilda hokimiyat tepasiga kelganL. Echeverria hukumati ahvolni yaxshilash uchun yer islohoti toʻgʻrisida qonun (1971), yangi saylov qonuni (1972), mahalliy kapital qoʻyilishini ragʻbatlantirish va chet el kapitalini tartibga solish toʻgʻrisida qonun (1973) qabul qildi, davlat xizmatchilari uchun haftasiga 5 ish kuni joriy qildi. M.ning Gʻarbiy Yevropa mamlakatlari, Yaponiya va Lotin Amerikasidagi bir qancha mamlakatlar bilan tashqi savdo aloqalari kengaytirildi.
 
The governments of President L. Portillo, elected in 1976, and especially E. Sedilo, elected in 1994, sought to develop industry and agriculture and to carry out economic reforms. However, the country's external debt has increased, the use of production capacity has decreased, and crops have shrunk. In 2000, the election of Vicente Fox Quesada from the center-right Alliance put an end to the dominance of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which had ruled the country since 1929. In recent years, the policy of localization of economic management, reduction of unprofitable state-owned enterprises, strengthening the "openness" of the economy and entrepreneurship, the development of mutually beneficial international cooperation has begun. M. recognized the independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan on December 26, 1991 and established diplomatic relations with it on March 16, 1992. M. Member of the UN since 1945. National holiday - September 16 - Independence Day (1810).
1976 yilda saylangan prezident L. Portilo va ayniqsa, 1994 yilda saylangan E. Sedilo hukumatlari sanoat va qishloq xoʻjaligini rivojlantirish, iqtisodiy islohotlar oʻtkazishga urindi. Ammo mamlakatning tashqi qarzi oshdi, ishlab chiqarish quvvatlaridan foydalanish pasaydi, ekinzorlar qisqardi. 2000 yil "Oʻng markazchi alyans" blokidan Visente Foks Kesadaning prezident lavozimiga saylanishi 1929 yildan buyon mamlakatni idora qilib kelayotgan Institutsioninqilobiy partiyaning hukmronligiga chek qoʻydi. Keyingi yillarda xoʻjalik boshqaruvini mahalliylashtirish, davlatga qarashli norentabel korxonalarni qisqartirish, iqtisodiyotning "ochikligi" va tadbirkorlik fa-oliyatini kuchaytirish, oʻzaro manfa-atli xalqaro hamkorlikni rivojlantirish siyosati oʻtkazila boshladi. M. 1991 yil 26 dekabrda Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi mustaqilligini tan olgan va 1992 yil 16 martda u bilan diplomatiya munosabatlari oʻrnatgan. M. 1945 yildan BMT aʼzosi. Milliy bayrami — 16 sentabr — Mustaqillik eʼlon qilingan kun (1810).
 
== Siyosiy partiyalari, kasaba uyushmalari ==