Olim: Versiyalar orasidagi farq

90 bayt olib tashlandi ,  10 yil oldin
k
tahrir izohi yoʻq
(yangi)
 
kTahrir izohi yoʻq
</ref> Olim fanning bir yoki bir necha sohasida mutaxassis boʻlishi mumkin.<ref>Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. 1989</ref> Ushbu maqolada atamaning tor maʼnoda qoʻllanishi yoritiladi. Olimlar [[tabiat]]ni fizik, matematik va ijtimoiy jihatlardan chuqurroq tushunish uchun tadqiqotlar olib borishadi.
 
Voqeʼlik (reallik) ning moddiy boʻlmagan va oʻlchab boʻlmaydigan jihatlarini [[faylasuf]]lar oʻrganadi. Olimlar shuningdek amaliy maqsadlarda ishlatish uchun qurilmalar yasaydigan [[muhandis]]lardan ham farqlanishadi. Fan amaliy foyda keltirib chiqadigan nuqtaga yetganida, u ''amaliy fan'', deb nomlanadi (bu yerdan u muhandislik bilan yaqin ishlay boshlaydi). Fan voqeʼlikning nomoddiy xususiyatlarini oʻz ichiga olsa, u ''[[tabiiy falsafa]]'', deb ataladi.
[[Philosophy]] can be seen as a distinct activity, which is aimed towards a more comprehensive understanding of intangible aspects of reality and experience that cannot be physically measured.
 
Scientists are also distinct from [[engineer]]s, those who develop devices that serve practical purposes. When science is done with a goal toward practical utility, it is called ''applied science'' (short of the creation of new devices that fall into the realm of engineering). When science is done with an inclusion of intangible aspects of reality it is called ''[[natural philosophy]]''.
 
Social roles that partly correspond with the modern scientist can be identified going back at least until 17th century natural philosophy, but the term ''scientist'' is much more recent. Until the late 19th or early 20th century, those who pursued science were called "[[Natural philosophy|natural philosophers]]" or "men of science".<ref>Nineteenth-Century Attitudes: Men of Science. http://www.rpi.edu/~rosss2/book.html</ref><ref>Friedrich Ueberweg, History of Philosophy: From Thales to the Present Time. C. Scribner's sons v.1, 1887</ref><ref>Steve Fuller, Kuhn VS. Popper: The Struggle For The Soul Of Science. Columbia University Press 2004. Page 43. ISBN 0-231-13428-2</ref><ref>''Science'' by American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1917. v.45 1917 Jan-Jun. [http://books.google.com/books?id=4gcuAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA274&as_brr=1&ei=_TiNR7znI5mmiQGXo4TEBQ#PPA274,M1 Page 274].</ref>
{{quote|We need very much a name to describe a cultivator of science in general. I should incline to call him a ''Scientist''. Thus we might say, that as an Artist is a Musician, Painter, or Poet, a Scientist is a Mathematician, Physicist, or Naturalist.}}
He also proposed the term ''physicist'' at the same time, as a counterpart to the French word ''physicien''. Neither term gained wide acceptance until decades later; ''scientist'' became a common term in the late 19th century in the United States and around the turn of the 20th century in Great Britain.<ref name=Ross1962>{{Cite journal| format = PDF | author = Ross, Sydney | year = 1962 | title = Scientist: The story of a word | journal = [[Annals of Science]] | volume = 18 | issue = 2 | pages = 65–85 | url = http://www.informaworld.com/index/739364907.pdf | accessdate = 2011-03-08 | doi = 10.1080/00033796200202722| ref = harv}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.victorianweb.org/science/whewell.html|title= William Whewell (1794-1866) gentleman of science|accessdate=2007-05-19}}</ref><ref>Tamara Preaud, Derek E. Ostergard, The Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory. Yale University Press 1997. 416 pages. ISBN 0-300-07338-0 Page 36.</ref> By the twentieth century, the modern notion of science as a special brand of information about the world, practiced by a distinct group and pursued through a unique method, was essentially in place.
 
== Manbalar ==
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