Olim: Versiyalar orasidagi farq

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Voqeʼlik (reallik) ning moddiy boʻlmagan va oʻlchab boʻlmaydigan jihatlarini [[faylasuf]]lar oʻrganadi. Olimlar shuningdek amaliy maqsadlarda ishlatish uchun qurilmalar yasaydigan [[muhandis]]lardan ham farqlanishadi. Fan amaliy foyda keltirib chiqadigan nuqtaga yetganida, u ''amaliy fan'', deb nomlanadi (bu yerdan u muhandislik bilan yaqin ishlay boshlaydi). Fan voqeʼlikning nomoddiy xususiyatlarini oʻz ichiga olsa, u ''[[tabiiy falsafa]]'', deb ataladi.
 
SocialZamonaviy rolesolim thatishiga partlyoʻxshash correspondfaoliyat withbilan theshugʻullanuvchi modernijtimoiy scientistrollar canXVII beasrda identifiedpaydo goingboʻla backboshladi. atGʻarbda leastXX untilasr 17thboshlarigacha centuryfan naturalbilan philosophy,shugʻullanadiganlar but„tabiiy thefaylasuflar“ termyoki ''scientist''„fan is much more recent. Until the late 19th or early 20th centuryodamlari“, those who pursued science were called "[[Natural philosophy|natural philosophers]]" or "men ofdeb science"atalardi.<ref>Nineteenth-Century Attitudes: Men of Science. http://www.rpi.edu/~rosss2/book.html</ref><ref>Friedrich Ueberweg, History of Philosophy: From Thales to the Present Time. C. Scribner's sons v.1, 1887</ref><ref>Steve Fuller, Kuhn VS. Popper: The Struggle For The Soul Of Science. Columbia University Press 2004. Page 43. ISBN 0-231-13428-2</ref><ref>''Science'' by American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1917. v.45 1917 Jan-Jun. [http://books.google.com/books?id=4gcuAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA274&as_brr=1&ei=_TiNR7znI5mmiQGXo4TEBQ#PPA274,M1 Page 274].</ref>
 
Olimlar [[universitet]], [[ilmiy-tadqiqot instituti|institutlar]] yoki shirkatlar uchun ishlashadi. Shaxsiy tadqiqot oʻtkazuvchi olimlar ham mavjud. Olimlar mutaxassislik darajasini bildiruvchi [[ilmiy unvon]]lar olishlari mumkin (dotsent, doktor, professor kabi).
English philosopher and historian of science [[William Whewell]] coined the term ''scientist'' in 1833, and it was first published in Whewell's anonymous 1834 review of [[Mary Somerville]]'s ''On the Connexion of the Physical Sciences'' published in the ''[[Quarterly Review]]''. Whewell's suggestion of the term was partly satirical, a response to changing conceptions of science itself in which natural knowledge was increasingly seen as distinct from other forms of knowledge. Whewell wrote of "an increasing proclivity of separation and dismemberment" in the sciences; while highly specific terms proliferated&mdash;chemist, mathematician, naturalist&mdash;the broad term "philosopher" was no longer satisfactory to group together those who pursued science, without the caveats of "natural" or "experimental" philosopher. Members of the [[British Association for the Advancement of Science]] had been complaining about the lack of a good term at recent meetings, Whewell reported in his review; alluding to himself, he noted that "some ingenious gentleman proposed that, by analogy with ''artist'', they might form [the word] ''scientist'', and added that there could be no scruple in making free with this term since we already have such words as ''[[economist]]'', and ''[[atheist]]''&mdash;but this was not generally palatable".<ref name=Holmes>{{cite book |last1= Holmes|first1= R|title= The age of wonder: How the romantic generation discovered the beauty and terror of science|edition= |year= 2008|publisher= Harper Press|location= London|isbn= 978-0-00-714953-7|page= 449}}</ref>
Whewell proposed the word again more seriously (and not anonymously) in his 1840 ''The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences'':
{{quote|We need very much a name to describe a cultivator of science in general. I should incline to call him a ''Scientist''. Thus we might say, that as an Artist is a Musician, Painter, or Poet, a Scientist is a Mathematician, Physicist, or Naturalist.}}
He also proposed the term ''physicist'' at the same time, as a counterpart to the French word ''physicien''. Neither term gained wide acceptance until decades later; ''scientist'' became a common term in the late 19th century in the United States and around the turn of the 20th century in Great Britain.<ref name=Ross1962>{{Cite journal| format = PDF | author = Ross, Sydney | year = 1962 | title = Scientist: The story of a word | journal = [[Annals of Science]] | volume = 18 | issue = 2 | pages = 65–85 | url = http://www.informaworld.com/index/739364907.pdf | accessdate = 2011-03-08 | doi = 10.1080/00033796200202722| ref = harv}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.victorianweb.org/science/whewell.html|title= William Whewell (1794-1866) gentleman of science|accessdate=2007-05-19}}</ref><ref>Tamara Preaud, Derek E. Ostergard, The Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory. Yale University Press 1997. 416 pages. ISBN 0-300-07338-0 Page 36.</ref> By the twentieth century, the modern notion of science as a special brand of information about the world, practiced by a distinct group and pursued through a unique method, was essentially in place.
 
== Manbalar ==
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[[ast:Científicu]]
[[az:Alim]]
[[bn:বিজ্ঞানী]]
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[[bg:Учен]]
[[ca:Científic]]
[[cs:Vědec]]
[[da:Videnskabsmand]]
[[de:Wissenschaftler]]
[[nv:Naʼałkaahí]]
[[et:Teadlane]]
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[[es:Científico]]
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[[ga:Eolaí]]
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[[ko:과학자]]
[[hy:Գիտնական]]
[[hi:वैज्ञानिक]]
[[id:Ilmuwan]]
[[it:Scienziato]]
[[he:מדען]]
[[kn:ವಿಜ್ಞಾನಿ]]
[[kk:Ғалым]]
[[ku:Zanistyar]]
[[ky:Окумуштуу]]
[[lv:Zinātnieks]]
[[lb:Wëssenschaftler]]
[[lt:Mokslininkas]]
[[mr:शास्त्रज्ञ]]
[[ms:Ahli sains]]
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[[pl:Naukowiec]]
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[[ro:Om de știință]]
[[qu:Yachaq]]
[[ru:Учёный]]
[[sq:Shkencëtari]]
[[scn:Scinzatu]]
[[simple:Scientist]]
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[[sl:Znanstvenik]]
[[ckb:زانستیار]]
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[[fi:Tieteilijä]]
[[sv:Vetenskapsman]]
[[ta:அறிவியல் அறிஞர்]]
[[tt:Галим]]
[[te:శాస్త్రవేత్త]]
[[th:นักวิทยาศาสตร์]]
[[tg:Олим]]
[[tr:Bilim adamı]]
[[uk:Науковець]]
[[ur:سائنسدان]]
[[vec:Siensiato]]
[[war:Syentifico]]
[[zh-yue:科學家]]
[[diq:Merdumê İlmi]]
[[zh:科学家]]