Buyuk ozodlik xartiyasi

Buyuk ozodlik xartiyasi (Lotincha Magna Carta („Buyuk xartiya“) yoki Magna Carta Libertatum („Buyuk ozodlik xartiyasi“)) 1215-yil Angliyada imzolangan muhim xujjat. Bu ayni paytda dunyo tarixini oʻzgartirgan voqelik sifatida ham qabul qilinadi. Buyuk ozodlik xartiyasi qirolning vakolatlarini qisqartirishga qaratilgan eng dastlabki xujjatlardan biri sanaladi. Shu bilan birga xujjatda baron va ruhoniylarga ayrim yengilliklar beriladi. Qirol ruhoniylarning erkin sayloviga aralashmaydi. Oʻz vasallaridan keragidan ortiq toʻlov talab qilmaydi va baronlarni oʻzboshimchalik bilan qamay olmaydi. Ritsar va shaharliklar, shuningdek dehqonlarga ham maʼlum yengilliklar beriladi. 63 moddadan iborat boʻlgan bu xujjatga koʻra davlat amaldorlarining dehqonlar haq-huquqlarini himoya qilishi, belgilangan miqdordan ortiqcha xizmat va toʻlov olish taʼqiqlanishi belgilab qoʻyiladi. Ammo xujjatning bu moddasiga deyarli amal qilinmaydi. Nima boʻlgan taqdirda ham „Buyuk ozodlik xartiyasi“ bugungi konstitutsiyaviy tuzumga oʻtishdagi ilk qadamlardan biri sifatida qabul qilinadi.[1]

Magna Carta (British Library Cotton MS Augustus II.106).jpg
Imzolangan sanasi 1215
Imzolangan joyi Salisbury monastiri
Tomonlar Ioann va Angliyaning 25 baroni
Tillari Inglizcha

Xujjatning qabul qilinishiga imkon bergan omillar.Tahrirlash

Buyuk ozodlik xartiyasining qabul qilinishiga yoʻl ochib bergan omillar ayni vaqtda Angliyaning Normandiya tomonidan istilo qilinguniga qadar davom etadi. 150 yildan beri tinimsiz davom etib kelayotgan qirol va baronlarning kurashlari qirol Ioann Xll davrida yanada chigallashib ketadi. Baronlarning kuchini sindirish uchun qirol Ioann qoʻlidagi barcha imkoniyatni sinab koʻrishga harakat qiladi. Bundan gʻazablangan baronlar Fransiya bilan boʻlgan urushdan magʻlubiyatga uchragan Ioannga qarshi ochiqdan-ochiq urush qilishga qaror qilishadi. Baronlarning maqasadi koʻproq yer-mulk, imtiyoz hamda koʻproq qal’alarni qoʻlga kiritish edi. Oʻz talablarini yozma ravishda qirolga topshirishga kelishib olgan baronlar, qoʻygan talablari qirol tomonidan rad qilingan taqdirda, kuch ishlatishga kelishib olishadi.

Buyuk ozodlik xartiyasining eʼlon qilinishiTahrirlash

Shu tariqa baronlar 1215-yilda qirol bilan uchrashishadi. Uchrashuvdan soʻng qirol bu talablarni tez orada koʻrib chiqishini va ijobiy javob berishini aytadi. Lekin, soʻzida turmaydi. Bunga javoban baronlar qirolga qarshi bosh koʻtarishadi. Angliyaning yirik shaharlarini egallab olgan baronlar qirolni bu xujjatni imzolashiga majbur qilishadi. Yangi farmonga koʻra qirolning cheklanmagan hokimiyatiga barham beriladi. Va, unda qirol va baronlarning vazifasi aniq belgilab olinadi. Farmon ayni paytda baronlarga juda katta imtiyozlar beradi. Oddiy xalq esa bu kabi imtiyozlardan mosuvo boʻlib qolaveradi. Ayni paytda dehqonlarning yer bilan birga qoʻldan-qoʻlga oʻtish tizimi davom etadi.[2] Oddiy fuqarolardan koʻproq yuqori tabaqa vakillarining huquqlarini oʻzida jamlagan xujjat qirolning vakolatlarini koʻproq baronlar va ruhoniylar foydasiga cheklab qoʻyadi. Buyuk ozodlik xartiyasining 39-moddasi eng muhim qismlaridan biri hisoblanadi. Bu modda bugungi kundagi qonunchilik asoslarining tamal toshini qoʻyganligi bilan ham ajralib turadi. Bu moddada shunday deyilgan: "Hech qaysi ozod inson mamlakat qonunlaridan tashqari hibsga olinishga yoʻl qoʻyilmaydi, mol-mulki musodara qilinmaydi, qonundan tashqari deb eʼlon qilinmaydi, surgun qilinmaydi, unga hech qanday shaklda zarar yetkazilishiga yoʻl qoʻyilmaydi" Ioann, qirolning vakolatlarini qisqartirilishga qaratilgan ushbu xujjatni tasdiqlashdan boshqa chorasi qolmagan edi. Xujjatda mamlakatdagi 25 baronning qarori qirol farmonidan ustun ekanligi belgilab qoʻyiladi.[3] Ammo keyinchalik bu xujjatga tomonlarning amal qilmaganligi tufayli papa Inokentiy lll tomonidan bekor qilinadi. Bu esa „Birinchi baronlar urushi“ga sabab boʻladi.

Buyuk ozodlik xartiyasining natijalariTahrirlash

U davrga qadar hokimiyat mutloq qirolga tegishli degan qarash hukmron edi. Buyuk ozodlik xartiyasi qabul qilingandan soʻng Lordlardan tashkil topgan parlament qirol bilan birga mamlakatni boshqara boshlaydi. Bu ayni paytda cherkovning hukmronligiga ham katta zarba boʻlgandi.

ManbalarTahrirlash

  1. "MAGNA CARTA LIBERTATUM, Büyük Özgürlükler Sözleşmesi Arxivlandi 2016-03-03 Wayback Machine saytida." (PDF). T.C. İstanbul Barosu. 23 Kasım 2018 tarihinde kaynağından (PDF) arşivlendi.
  2. Nurşah Aksoy(Nurshoh Aksoy), Tarihe Yön Veren Olaylar(Tarixni oʻzgartirgan voqealar); s. 40-41, KARMA kitapları, İstanbul
  3. Buyuk ozodlik xartiyasi(Magna Cart)ning ingliz tilidagi 61-moddasi: Since, moreover, for God and the amendment of our kingdom and for the better allaying of the quarrel that has arisen between us and our barons, we have granted all these concessions, desirous that they should enjoy them in complete and firm endurance for ever, we give and grant to them the underwritten security, namely, that the barons choose five-and-twenty barons of the kingdom, whomsoever they will, who shall be bound with all their might, to observe and hold, and cause to be observed, the peace and liberties we have granted and confirmed to them by this our present Charter, so that if we, or our justiciar, or our bailiffs or any one of our officers, shall in anything be at fault toward any one, or shall have broken any one of the articles of the peace or of this security, and the offense be notified to four barons of the foresaid five-and-twenty, the said four barons shall repair to us (or our justiciar, if we are out of the realm) and, laying the transgression before us, petition to have that transgression redressed without delay. And if we shall not have corrected the transgression (or, in the event of our being out of the realm, if our justiciar shall not have corrected it) within forty days, reckoning from the time it has been intimated to us (or to our justiciar, if we should be out of the realm), the four barons aforesaid shall refer that matter to the rest of the five-and-twenty barons, and those five-and-twenty barons shall, together with the community of the whole land, distrain and distress us in all possible ways, namely, by seizing our castles, lands, possessions, and in any other way they can, until redress has been obtained as they deem fit, saving harmless our own person, and the persons of our queen and children; and when redress has been obtained, they shall resume their old relations toward us. And let whoever in the country desires it, swear to obey the orders of the said five-and-twenty barons for the execution of all the aforesaid matters, and along with them, to molest us to the utmost of his power; and we publicly and freely grant leave to every one who wishes to swear, and we shall never forbid any one to swear. All those, moreover, in the land who of themselves and of their own accord are unwilling to swear to the twenty-five to help them in constraining and molesting us, we shall by our command compel the same to swear to the effect foresaid. And if any one of the five-and-twenty barons shall have died or departed from the land, or be incapacitated in any other manner which would prevent the foresaid provisions being carried out, those of the said twenty-five barons who are left shall choose another in his place according to their own judgment, and he shall be sworn in the same way as the others. Further, in all matters, the execution of which is intrusted to these twenty-five barons, if perchance these twenty-five are present and disagree about anything, or if some of them, after being summoned, are unwilling or unable to be present, that which the majority of those present ordain or command shall be held as fixed and established, exactly as if the whole twenty-five had concurred in this; and the said twenty-five shall swear that they will faithfully observe all that is aforesaid, and cause it to be observed with all their might. And we shall procure nothing from any one, directly or indirectly, whereby any part of these concessions and liberties might be revoked or diminished; and if any such thing has been procured, let it be void and null, and we shall never use it personally or by another.