Philip Morris Glass (1937-yil 31-yanvarda tug'ilgan) - amerikalik bastakor va pianinochi. U 20-asr oxiridagi eng nufuzli bastakorlardan biri sifatida juda mashhur.[1][2][3] Glassning ishi takrorlanuvchi iboralar va o'zgaruvchan qatlamlardan qurilgan minimalizm bilan bog'liq bo`lgan.[4] Glass o'zini "takroriy tuzilmalarga ega musiqa"[5] bastakori sifatida ta'riflaydi. U stilistik jihatdan rivojlanishiga yordam berdi.[6][7]

Philip Glass
Philip Glass 018 crop.jpg
Umumiy maʼlumot
Tugʻilgan paytidagi ismi Philip Morris Glass
Tavalludi 31-yanvar 1937
Fuqaroligi AQSh
Turmush oʻrtogʻi JoAnne Akalaitis
Janr
Faoliyat yillari 1964–yillar
Sayt philipglass.com

Philip Glass ansambliga asos solgan va u bilan hali ham klavishlarida ijro etmoqda. U o'n beshta opera, ko'plab kamera operalari va musiqali teatr asarlarini yozdi.Yana O'n to'rtta simfoniya, o'n ikkita kontsert, to'qqizta torli kvartet va boshqa turli xil kamera musiqalari va bir nechta film partituralarini yaratdi.Uning uchta filmi Oskar mukofoti uchun nomzod bo'lgan.

Hayoti va kasbiTahrirlash

1937-1964-yillar erta ta`limTahrirlash

Philip Morris[8] Glass Maryland shtatining Baltimore shahrida[9] 1937-yil 31-yanvarda[10] Ida (née Gouline) va Benjamin Charles Glassning oʻgʻli boʻlib tugʻilgan.[11] Uning oilasi Litva-Yahudiy muhojirlaridan bo`lgan.[12] Otasining ovoz yozish do'koni bo`lgan. Onasi esa kutubxonachi edi.[13] Glass o'z xotiralarida Ikkinchi jahon urushi oxirida onasi Holocaustdan omon qolgan yahudiylarga yordam berganini va yaqinda Amerikaga kelganlarni, ish va yashash joyi topmaguncha o'z uylarida qolishga taklif qilganini eslaydi. [14] Ularga ingliz tilini o'rganish va ish topishi uchun ko'nikmalarni rivojlantirishga yordam berish rejasini ishlab chiqdi.[14] Uning singlisi Sheppie keyinchalik Xalqaro Qutqaruv Qo'mitasining faol a'zosi sifatida ishga kiradi.[14]

Glass musiqani qadrlashni otasidan o`rgandi. Keyinchalik uning otasi oilasida ko'plab musiqachilar borligini sezdi. Uning amakivachchasi Cevia edi. U klassik pianinochi bo'lgan.U oilasi Al Jolson bilan qarindoshligini bilib oldi.[14]

Glassning otasi ko'pincha musiqa do'konida yangi yozuvlarning reklama nusxalarini chop etardi. Glass ularni tinglash uchun ko'p vaqtini o'tkazdi. O'z bilimi va musiqa san`atini rivojlantirdi. “Mening otam o'zini-o'zi o'rgatgan, lekin u klassik, kamera va zamonaviy musiqa bo'yicha juda nozik va boy bilimga ega edi. Odatda u uyga kelib, kechga ovqatlanar, keyin kresloga o'tirib, deyarli yarim tungacha musiqa tinglardi. Men buni juda erta angladim va u bilan borib tinglardim.”Oqsoqol Glass o'z mijozlariga yangi yozuvlarni ham, kompozitorlarning keng tanlovini ham targ'ib qildi, ba'zida ularni o'zlari yoqtirmagan yozuvlarni qaytarishga imkon berib, yangi narsalarni sinab ko'rishga ishontirdi.[14] Tez orada uning do'koni Baltimorening zamonaviy musiqasida yetakchi manba sifatida obro'ga ega bo'ldi.[15]

Glass otasining do'konidagi sotilmagan plastinalardan katta hajmdagi rekordlar to'plamini yaratdi, jumladan Hindemit, Bartok, Schoenberg,[16] Shostakovich kabi zamonaviy klassik musiqa va G'arb klassik musiqasi, jumladan Betxovenning torli kvartetlari va Shubertning B ♭ Piano triosi. Glass Shubertning ishini ko`rib,chiqadi va o'sib borayotganini "katta ta'sir" sifatida keltiradi.[17]

U bolaligida Peabody musiqa institutining Pibodi tayyorgarligida nay chalishni o'rgangan.15 yoshida u Chikago universitetining tezlashtirilgan kollej dasturiga o'qishga kirdi.U yerda matematika va falsafani o'rgandi.[18] Chicagoda u Anton Webernning serializmini kashf etdi, O'n ikki ohangli torli trio yaratdi.[19] 1954-yilda Glass Parijga sayohat qildi. U yerda Jean Cocteauning filmlariga duch keldi. Bu esa unda unutilmas taassurot qoldirdi. U rassomlar ustaxonalarida bo'lib, ularning ishlarini ko'rdi. Glass eslaydi: "Siz [Koktoning] Orfesida ko'rgan bohem hayoti meni o'ziga jalb qilgan hayot edi va ular men bilan birga bo'lgan odamlar edi".[20]

Glass Juilliard musiqa maktabida o'qigan, u erda klaviatura uning asosiy asbobi bo'lgan. Uning kompozitsiya o'qituvchilari orasida Vinsent Persichetti va Uilyam Bergsma bor edi. Talabalar orasida Stiv Reyx va Piter Shikel ham bor edi. 1959-yilda u BMI Foundation tomonidan yosh bastakorlar uchun xalqaro mukofot - BMI Student Composer Awards mukofoti sovrindori bo'ldi. 1960-yilning yozida u Darius Milhaud bilan Aspen musiqa festivalining yozgi maktabida tahsil oldi va kursdoshi Doroti Piksli-Rotshild uchun skripka kontsertini yozdi. [21] 1962-yilda Juilliardni tark etgach, Glass Pitsburgga ko'chib o'tdi va turli xil xor, kamera va orkestr musiqalarini yaratib, davlat maktab tizimida maktabda bastakor bo'lib ishladi.[22]

1964–1966-yillar: ParijTahrirlash

1964-yilda Glass Fulbright stipendiyasini oldi.1964-yilning kuzidan 1966-yilning yozigacha taniqli kompozitor o'qituvchisi Nadiya Boulanger bilan Parijda o'qiganligi uning butun hayoti davomida ijodiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi, bastakor 1979-yilda tan olganidek: "Men Boulanger bilan birga o'qigan bastakorlar haligacha eng ko'p o'ylaydigan odamlardir. Ular Iogann Sebastyan Bax va Mozart."[23]

ManbalarTahrirlash

  1. Naxos Classical Music Spotlight podcast: Philip Glass Heroes Symphony
  2. "The Most Influential People in Classical and Dance", New York, May 8, 2006, http://nymag.com/news/features/influentials/16903/, qaraldi: November 10, 2008 Philip Glass]]
  3. O'Mahony, John (November 24, 2001), "The Guardian Profile: Philip Glass", The Guardian (London), https://www.theguardian.com/Archive/Article/0,4273,4306156,00.html, qaraldi: November 10, 2008 Philip Glass]]
  4. SPIN Media LLC. SPIN. SPIN Media LLC, May 1985 — 55– bet. 
  5. Biography, PhilipGlass.com, archived from the original on August 4, 2013, https://web.archive.org/web/20130804233252/http://www.philipglass.com/bio.php, qaraldi: November 10, 2008, "The new musical style that Glass was evolving was eventually dubbed "minimalism". Glass himself never liked the term and preferred to speak of himself as a composer of "music with repetitive structures". Much of his early work was based on the extended reiteration of brief, elegant melodic fragments that wove in and out of an aural tapestry." Philip Glass]]
  6. Smith, Ethan, "Is Glass Half Empty?", New York, http://nymag.com/nymetro/arts/music/pop/reviews/485/, qaraldi: November 10, 2008 Philip Glass]]
  7. Smith, Steve (September 23, 2007), "If Grant Had Been Singing at Appomattox", The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/23/arts/music/23smit.html 
  8. „Philip Morris Glass“ (en). grandsballets.com. Qaraldi: 9-oktabr 2021-yil.
  9. Contemporary Authors. New Revision Series. Vol. 131 (Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2005):169–180.
  10. „Philip Glass Biography – Facts, Birthday, Life Story“. Biography.com. Qaraldi: 29-mart 2013-yil.
  11. „Philip Glass Biography (1937–)“. Filmreference.com. Qaraldi: 20-sentabr 2011-yil.
  12. Joe Staines. The Rough Guide to Classical Music. Penguin, 2010 — 209 bet. ISBN 978-1-4053-8321-9. 20-mart 2012-yilda qaraldi. 
  13. Maddocks, Fiona. Words Without Music review – Philip Glass's deft, quietly witty memoir“. The Guardian (26-aprel 2015-yil). Qaraldi: 27-mart 2016-yil.
  14. 14,0 14,1 14,2 14,3 14,4 Glass, Philip. Words Without Music: A Memoir, New York: W. W. Norton. (2016) ISBN 1-63149-143-1 Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Glass" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Glass" defined multiple times with different content
  15. „Composer Philip Glass's Childhood Gig“. The Wall Street Journal (12-may 2015-yil). Qaraldi: 26-iyun 2021-yil.
  16. Gordinier, Jeff (March 2008), "Wiseguy: Philip Glass Uncut", Details, archived from the original on August 9, 2014, https://web.archive.org/web/20140809140004/http://www.details.com/celebrities-entertainment/men-of-the-moment/200802/wiseguy-legendary-composer-philip-glass?currentPage=2, qaraldi: November 10, 2008 Philip Glass]]
  17. "Philip Glass on making music with no frills", The Independent (London), June 29, 2007, archived from the original on August 25, 2011, https://web.archive.org/web/20110825090329/http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/features/interview-philip-glass-on-making-music-with-no-frills-455067.html, qaraldi: November 10, 2008 Philip Glass]]
  18. "Philip Glass, winner of 2016 Tribune Literary Award, reflects on a life well composed" by John von Rhein, Chicago Tribune, October 26, 2016
  19. Schwarz 1996, s. Andoza:Page needed
  20. Jonathan Cott, "Conversation Philip Glass on La Belle et la Bête, booklet notes to the recording, Nonesuch 1995
  21. Ev Grimes: "Interview: Education" in Kostelanetz 1999, s. 25
  22. Potter 2000.
  23. Kostelanetz 1999.