COVID-19 koronavirus infeksiyasi

Ushbu maqola kasallik haqida. Virus uchun Ogʻir oʻtkir nafas olish sindromi koronavirusi 2 (SARS-CoV-2) maqolasiga qarang. Pandemiya uchun COVID-19 pandemiyasi maqolasiga oʻting.

COVID-19 simptomlari

2019-yil koronavirus infeksiyasi (COVID-19)SARS-CoV-2, yaʼni ogʻir oʻtkir nafas olish sindromi koronavirusi 2 keltirib chiqaradigan yuqumli kasallik.[1] Kasallik ilk marotaba 2019-yilda Xitoyning Uxan shahrida aniqlandi va global miqyosda tarqalib, 2019–2020-yillardagi koronavirus pandemiyasini keltirib chiqardi.[2][3] Kasallik yuqori harorat, yoʻtal hamda nafas olishni mushkullashishi kabi simptomlarni keltirib chiqaradi. Ayrim holatlar mushaklar ogʻrishi, balgʻam ajralishi hamda tomoq ogʻrishi kuzatiladi.[4][5] Virus yuqtirganlarning aksarida yengil simptomlar yuzaga kelsa-da,[6] ayrim bemorlarda kasallik ogʻir pnevmoniya hamda bir necha organ faoliyatining ishdan chiqishiga olib keladi.[2][7] Diagnoz qoʻyilgan holatlar orasida oʻlimlar koʻrsatkichi oʻrtacha 3,4 foizni tashkil qiladi. 20 yoshga toʻlmaganlar orasida bu koʻrsatkich 0,2 foizni, 80 yoshdan oʻtganlar orasida 15 foizni tashkil qiladi.[8][9][10]

Kelib chiqishi va tashxisTahrirlash

COVID-19 koronavirus infeksiyasi odatda shaxsdan-shaxsga yoʻtal va aksa berish davomida chiqariladigan tomchilar orqali yiqadi.[11][12] Virusni yuqtirgandan keyin kasallik simptomlar yuzaga kela boshlagunicha oʻrtacha 5 kun oʻtadi. Bu davr 2 kundan 14 kungacha davom etishi mumkin.[13][14] Tashxis qoʻyishning standart uslubi burun boʻshligʻi yoki tomoqdan olingan suyuqlikni teskari transkripsiyali polimeraza zanjiri reaksiyasi (inglizcha: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR)) yordamida tekshirishdan iborat. Shuningdek, bemorga simptomlar, risk unsurlari hamda pnevmoniya belgilarini aniqlash uchun kompyuter tomograf yordamida tashxis qoʻyish mumkin.[15][16]

Oldini olish va boshqarishTahrirlash

Infeksiya oldini olish uchun qoʻllarni tez-tez yuvish, boshqalardan uzoqroq masofada boʻlish hamda yuzni qoʻllar bilan ushlamaslik tavsiya qilinadi.[17] Niqoblardan foydalanish esa hamma uchun emas, balki virusni yuqtirganini shubha qilayotganlar hamda ularga qarayotganlargagina tavsiya qilinadi.[18][19] Ayni damda COVID-19 ga qarshi vaksina yoki preparat yoʻq. Kasallikni boshqarish simptomlarni davolash, izolyatsiya hamda eksperimental choralardan iborat.[20]

Epidemiologiyasi va tarixiTahrirlash

Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti 2019–20-yilgi koronavirus epidemiyasini pandemiya[3] hamda xalqaro sogʻliqni saqlash favqulodda holati (inglizcha: Public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC))[21][22] deya belgiladi. Jahon boʻylab virusning mahalliy tarqalishi (yaʼni, virus oʻchogʻiga bormagan shaxslar oʻrtasida tarqalishi) holatlari qayd etildi.[23]

ManbalarTahrirlash

  1. Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it. Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti (JSST).
  2. 2,0 2,1 "The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China". Int J Infect Dis 91: 264–66. February 2020. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009. PMID 31953166. 
  3. 3,0 3,1 "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19" (Press release). 11 March 2020. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020. 
  4. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (10 February 2020).
  5. Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19). Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti (JSST).
  6. Wang, Vivian (5 March 2020). "Most Coronavirus Cases Are Mild. That's Good and Bad News.". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/27/world/asia/coronavirus-treament-recovery.html. 
  7. Q&A on coronaviruses. Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti (JSST).
  8. Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti. (‎2020)‎. Coronavirus disease 2019 (‎‎COVID-19)‎‎: situation report, 46. 16 March 2020.
  9. Wuhan Coronavirus Death Rate. www.worldometers.info.
  10. Report 4: Severity of 2019-novel coronavirus (nCoV).
  11. Q&A on coronaviruses. Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti (JSST) (11 February 2020). “The disease can spread from person to person through small droplets from the nose or mouth which are spread when a person with COVID-19 coughs or exhales ... The main way the disease spreads is through respiratory droplets expelled by someone who is coughing.”
  12. 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (11 February 2020). “The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person ... through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.”
  13. Symptoms of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). www.cdc.gov (10 February 2020).
  14. "The COVID-19 epidemic". Tropical Medicine & International Health n/a (n/a): 278–80. March 2020. doi:10.1111/tmi.13383. PMID 32052514. 
  15. "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)". Military Medical Research 7 (1): 4. February 2020. doi:10.1186/s40779-020-0233-6. PMID 32029004. PMC 7003341. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=7003341. 
  16. CT provides best diagnosis for COVID-19. ScienceDaily (26 February 2020).
  17. Advice for public. Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti (JSST).
  18. CDC (11 February 2020). 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  19. Advice for public. Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti (JSST).
  20. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (15 February 2020).
  21. Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Jahon sogʻliqni saqlash tashkiloti (JSST).
  22. "Hundreds of evacuees to be held on bases in California; Hong Kong and Taiwan restrict travel from mainland China". The Washington Post. 6 February 2020. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/coronavirus-china-live-updates/2020/02/05/114ced8a-479c-11ea-bc78-8a18f7afcee7_story.html. 
  23. Coronavirus disease 2019 (‎COVID-19)‎: situation report, 47. March 2020.