Skandinaviya Shimoliy Yevropa mamlakatlari tomonidan shakllangan geografiyadir. Skandinaviya mamlakatlariga Daniya, Shvetsiya va Norvegiya kabi davlatlar kiradi. Bu davlatlar bilan bir qatorda, Skandinaviyani Finlandiya, Islandiya, Faroe orollari, Åland orollari va Grenlandiya tashkil etadi.[1][lower-alpha 1] Ushbu mamlakatlarning tillari oʻxshash, faqat fin tili bundan mustasno. Ushbu tillar shimoliy olmon tillari yoki skandinaviya tillari deb nomlanadi.[2]

Skandinaviyaning fazodan koʻrinishi

Skandinaviyaga kiruvchi Norvegiya Yevropaning eng boy mamlakatlaridan biridir. Ushbu mamlakat neft eksport qiluvchi mamlakat, biroq baliqchilik hamda Angliya bilan munosabati tufayli Yevropa Ittifoqiga qoʻshilmagan.

  • Bu qatorda, Islandiya ham Yevropa Ittifoqi aʼzosi emas.
  • Daniya esa 1973-yilda Yevropa Ittifoqiga qoʻshilgan.
  • Daniyaga qarashli Grenlandiya oroli 1979-yilda referendum orqali Yevropa Ittifoqidan ajralib chiqqan.
  • Faqat 1995-yilda Shvetsiya va Finlandiya betaraflikdan voz kechib, Yevropa Ittifoqiga qoʻshilishdi.
Galdhøpiggen Skandinaviyadagi eng baland nuqta hamda Skandinaviya togʻlarining bir qismidir.

Shuningdek qarangTahrirlash

IzohlarTahrirlash

  1. "Scandinavia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/526461/Scandinavia. "Scandinavia, historically Scandia, part of Northern Europe, generally held to consist of the two countries of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Norway and Sweden, with the addition of Denmark. Some authorities argue for the inclusion of Finland on geologic and economic grounds and of Iceland and the Faroe Islands on the grounds that their inhabitants speak Scandinavian languages related to those of Norway and Sweden and also have similar cultures." <!--->

ManbalarTahrirlash

  1. „Definition of Scandinavia in English“. Oxford Dictionaries. — „A large peninsula in north-western Europe, occupied by Norway and Sweden … A cultural region consisting of the countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark and sometimes also of Iceland, Finland, and the Faroe Islands“. Qaraldi: 23-Dekabr 2016-yil.
  2. John Harrison, Michael Hoyler, Megaregions: Globalizationʼs New Urban Form? (s. 152), Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015

AdabiyotlarTahrirlash

  • Barton, H. Arnold. Scandinavia in the Revolutionary Era: 1760-1815 (U of Minnesota Press, 1986) online review
  • Derry, T. K. A History of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland (George Allen & Unwin, 1979). online review
  • Helle, Knut, ed. The Cambridge history of Scandinavia. Volume 1, Prehistory to 1520 (Cambridge UP, 2003).
  • Mikkelsen, Flemming, Knut Kjeldstadli, and Stefan Nyzell, eds. Popular struggle and democracy in Scandinavia: 1700-present (Springer, 2017).
  • Nissen, Henrik S. ed. Scandinavia during the Second World War (1983) online review
  • Nordstrom, Byron J. Scandinavia since 1500 (U of Minnesota Press, 2000).
  • Pulsiano, Phillip, and Paul Leonard Acker. Medieval Scandinavia: an encyclopedia (Taylor & Francis, 1993).
  • Salmon, Patrick. Scandinavia and the great powers 1890-1940 (Cambridge UP, 2002).
  • Sawyer, Birgit. Medieval Scandinavia: From conversion to reformation, circa 800-1500 (U of Minnesota Press, 1993).
  • Sawyer, Peter Hayes. Kings and vikings: Scandinavia and Europe AD 700-1100 (1982)
  • Wilson, David Mackenzie, and P. Foote. The Viking achievement: the society and culture of early medieval Scandinavia (Sidgwick & Jackson, 1970).
  • Winroth, Anders. The Age of the Vikings (Princeton UP, 2016) excerpt
  • Winroth, Anders. The Conversion of Scandinavia: Vikings, Merchants, and Missionaries in the Remaking of Northern Europe (Yale UP, 2012). excerpt
  • Anderson, Jorgen, and Jens Hoff, eds. Democracy and citizenship in Scandinavia (Springer, 2001).
  • Bendixsen, Synnøve, Mary Bente Bringslid, and Halvard Vike, eds. Egalitarianism in Scandinavia: Historical and contemporary perspectives (Springer, 2017).
  • Gallie, Duncan. „The quality of working life: is Scandinavia different?.“ European Sociological Review 19.1 (2003): 61-79.
  • Green, Ken, Thorsteinn Sigurjónsson, and Eivind Åsrum Skille, eds. Sport in Scandinavia and the Nordic countries (Routledge, 2018).
  • Hilson, Mary. The Nordic Model: Scandinavia since 1945 (Reaktion books, 2008).
  • Ingebritsen, Christine. Scandinavia in world politics (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006).
  • Kröger, Teppo. „Local government in Scandinavia: autonomous or integrated into the welfare state?.“ in Social Care Services (Routledge, 2019) pp. 95-108.
  • Lappi-Seppälä, Tapio. „Penal policy in Scandinavia.“ Crime and justice 36.1 (2007): 217-295.
  • Nestingen, Andrew. Crime and fantasy in Scandinavia: Fiction, film and social change (University of Washington Press, 2011).
  • Rogerson, Richard. „Taxation and market work: is Scandinavia an outlier?.“ Economic theory 32.1 (2007): 59-85. online
  • Strand, Robert, R. Edward Freeman, and Kai Hockerts. „Corporate social responsibility and sustainability in Scandinavia: An overview.“ Journal of Business Ethics 127.1 (2015): 1-15 online.

HavolalarTahrirlash

. Scandinavian Tourist Boards in North America, Globescope Internet Services, Inc. (2005). Qaraldi: 5-sentabr 2008.

  • Nordic Council — Nordic mintaqasida hamkorlik qilish uchun rasmiy veb-sayt (ingl.)
  • Nordregio — Nordic Vazirlar Kengashi tomonidan tashkil etilgan sayt (ingl.)
  • vifanord — raqamli kutubxona (ingl.)
  • Skandinaviyadagi ekspatlar — Skandinaviyadagi ekspatlar uchun foydali maʼlumotlarga ega veb-sayt. (ingl.)