Sumayya bintu Xabbat (arabcha: سُمَيَّة ٱبْنَت خَبَّاط) yoki Sumayya bintu Xayyāṭ (سُمَيَّة ٱبْنَت خَيَّاط ; c. Milodiy 550 – 615 / milodiy 72 – BH 7), Ammar ibn Yosirning onasi va Islom paygʻambari Muhammad ummatining (jamoatining) birinchi a’zosi boʻlib, shahid (shahid ayol) boʻlgan.[1][2]

Sumayya bintu Xabbat
سُمَيَّة ٱبْنَت خَبَّاط
Sumayyah name.png
Tavalludi c. Milodiy 550-yil (72 BH)
Vafoti .c. Milodiy 615 yil (7 BH)
Makka, Hijoz
(present-day Saudiya Arabiston)
Bolalari Yosir ibn Ammor

Islom
Shahadah-1.svg
Islom tarixi

Din asoslari
Allohning birligiTavhid
FarishtalarKitoblar
PaygʻambarlarQiyomat
Qazo va Taqdir
Asosiy ibodatlar
Kalimai shahodat
NamozRoʻza
HajZakot
Muhim Shaxslar
Muhammad SAV •

Abu BakrUmarUsmonAliSahobalarAhli baytAshari mubashshara

Muqaddas matnlar
QurʼonHadisShariat
Islom huquqi Muhammadning hayoti
MakonlarIslom falsafasi
Islomdagi mazhablar
Siyosiy mazhablar
Eʼtiqodiy mazhablar
Fiqh mazhablariSoʻfizm
Jamoat
Islom taqvimi
JihodBayramlar
Muborak kechalar
Islom portali

YoshlikTahrirlash

U Makkadagi Maxzum qabilasidan bo'lgan Abu Huzayfa ibn al-Mug'iyraning qulida edi.[3] Xojasi uni Yamandagi Madhij qabilasining Molik urug'idan bo'lgan Yosir ibn Amirga turmushga berdi. Makkaga adashib qolgan birodarini izlash uchun kelganidan keyin u yerda Abu Huzayfaning himoyasida joylashishga qaror qilgan edi.[4] :188[3] Sumayya o'g'li Ammarni tug'di, taxminan 566-yilda.[4][5][1][3] Yosirning Xurt va Abdulloh ismli ikki ukasi ham bor edi[4]

Keyinroq Abu Huzayfa Sumayya va uning o'g'li Ammorni ozod qildi.[4] :188[1][3][6] Abu Huzayfa "islomdan oldin" vafot etgani aytiladi.[3]

Islomni qabul qilishTahrirlash

Bir an'anaga ko'ra, Sumayya "islomni ko'rsatgan" birinchi yettitadan biri bo'lgan, qolgan oltitasi Muhammad, Ali, Abu Bakr, Bilol, Xabbob, Suhayb va uning o'g'li Ammar edi.[4] "Islomni ko'rsatish" diniy qabul qilishdan boshqa narsani anglatishi mumkin, chunki boshqa bir urf-odatga ko'ra, Ammar musulmonlar al-Arqamning uyiga o'ttiz kishidan kirganidan keyin qabul qilingan.[4]

Quraysh ijtimoiy mavqei past bo'lgan musulmonlarni quvg'in qildi.Sumayyaning oilasi homiysi oʻlimidan soʻng himoyasiz boʻlib qolgan va aynan Maxzum urugʻining boshqa aʼzolari ularni eʼtiqodlaridan voz kechishlari uchun qiynoqqa solishgan.[1][2][7] Bir marta uni suv toʻla koʻza ichiga solib, qochib qutulolmasligi uchun koʻtarib yuborishgan.[4]

Sumayya "juda keksa va zaif ayol" deb ta'riflangan bo'lsa-da, sobit bo'lib, Islomni tark etishdan bosh tortgan.[8]

O'limTahrirlash

Bir kuni kechqurun Maxzum urug'idan bo'lgan Abu Jahl, uning turgan joyini ko'rgani keldi. Keyin uni nayzasi bilan sanchib oʻldirdi.[8][4] Abu Jahl Badrda o'ldirilganida Muhammad Ammorga: "Onangizning qotilini Olloh o'ldirdi", dedi.

Tabariy Sumayya hayotiga oid muqobil hikoyani eslatib oʻtadi. Uning aytishicha, u Yosir vafotidan keyin Azraq ismli vizantiyalik qulga turmushga chiqqan. U unga Salama ismli o'g'il tug'di. Tabariy, shuningdek, Sumayya ismli ikki Makkalik ayol o'rtasida chalkashlik bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan voqea sifatida ba'zi voqealarni qayd etadi.[9]

Tarixiy havolalarTahrirlash

Sumayyaning oʻldirilishi haqidagi dastlabki maʼlumot Ibn Ishoqning (761-yilda vafot etgan)[10] Muhammad, Siratu Rasulullohning tarjimai holida ( Rasulullohning tarjimai holi”) uchraydi.[8] :143[11] Uning ismi Sumayya Ibn Ishoqda ochiq aytilmagan; Bu uning o'g'li Sumayyaning "o'g'li" Ammar deb atalishidan olingan chegirmadir.[8] Ammo Ibn Sa'd[4] va Tabariy rivoyatlarida u Sumayya deb ataladi.[3]

Shuningdek qarangTahrirlash

ManbaTahrirlash

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 Muhammad ibn Saad (1995), "Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir", in Translated by Bewley, A., The Women of Madina, 8, London: Ta-Ha Publishers, pp. 185–186  Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Saad8" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Saad8" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Saad8" defined multiple times with different content
  2. 2,0 2,1 Razwy, Sayed A.A.A restatement of the history of Islam & Muslims : C.E. 570 to 661. Stanmore, Middlesex: World Federation of KSI Muslim Communities, 1997.. ISBN 0-9509-8791-3. 31-iyul 2014-yilda qaraldi. „Ammar ibn Yasser was also one of the earliest converts to Islam. As noted before, his mother and father were tortured to death by the pagans in Makkah. They were the first and the second martyrs of Islam, and this is a distinction that no one in all Islam can share with them.“  Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Razwy-Ch.UA" defined multiple times with different content
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 3,5 Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Volume 39: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, pp. 29-30, 116-117. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 4,3 4,4 4,5 4,6 4,7 4,8 Muhammad ibn Saad (2013), "Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir", in Translated by Bewley, A., The Companions of Badr, 3, London: Ta-Ha Publishers  Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Saad3" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Saad3" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Saad3" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Saad3" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Saad3" defined multiple times with different content
  5. Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr, p. 203. London: Ta-Ha Publishers. "Ammar was killed in Safar 37 AH at the age of 93."
  6. Muir, W. (1861). The Life of Mahomet, vol. 2, p. 125. London: Smith, Elder & Co
  7. Razwy, Sayed A.A. „"The first victims of pagan attrition and aggression were those Muslims who had no tribal affiliation in Makkah. Yasir and his wife, Sumayya, and their son, Ammar, had no tribal affiliation. In Makkah they were "foreigners" and there was no one to protect them. All three were savagely tortured by Abu Jahl and the other infidels. Sumayya, Yasir's wife, died while she was being tortured. She thus became the First Martyr in Islam. A little later, her husband, Yasir, was also tortured to death, and he became the Second Martyr in Islam. Quraysh had stained their hands with innocent blood! In the roster of martyrs, Sumayya and her husband, Yasir, rank among the highest. They were killed for no reason other than their devotion to Allah and their love for Islam and Muhammad Mustafa. Those Muslims who were killed in the battles of Badr and Uhud, had an army to defend and to support them. But Yasir and his wife had no one to defend them; they bore no arms, and they were the most defenseless of all the martyrs of Islam. By sacrificing their lives, they highlighted the truth of Islam, and they built strength into its structure. They made the tradition of sacrifice and martyrdom an integral part of the ethos of Islam."“,A restatement of the history of Islam & Muslims : C.E. 570 to 661. Stanmore, Middlesex: World Federation of KSI Muslin Communities, 1997.. ISBN 0950987913. 31-iyul 2014-yilda qaraldi. 
  8. 8,0 8,1 8,2 8,3 Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-636033-1 Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Ishaq" defined multiple times with different content Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Ishaq" defined multiple times with different content
  9. History of al-Tabari Vol. 39, The: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions p.29-30, SUNY Press, 07-Jul-2015, ISBN 9781438409986
  10. Robinson 2003, p. xv
  11. University of Wisconsin-Madison