Akbar Jaloliddin Muhammad (1542.14.10, Amarkot −1605, Agra yaqinidagi Sikandra qishlogʻi), „Akbar-shoh“ — Boburiylar sulolasidan hukmdor (1556 — 1605). Hindistondagi boburiylar saltanati hukmdori (1556-yildan).

Akbar Jaloliddin Muhammad
Podshoh
Gʻozi
3-Boburiy imperator
Saltanat 11 February 1556 — 27 October 1605[1]
Coronation 14 February 1556
Oʻtmishdoshi Humoyun
Davomchisi Jahongir
Regent Bayramxon (1556-1560)[2]
Tugʻilishi Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar
15 October 1542
Amarkot, Rajputana (present-day Umerkot, Sind, Pokiston)
Vafoti 27-oktyabr 1605-yil(1605-10-27)
(63 yoshda)
Fatehpur Sikri, Agra, Mughal Empire (present-day Uttar Pradesh, India)
Dafn etilgan joy November 1605
Turmush oʻrtogʻi
Turmush oʻrtogʻi
  • Raj Kunwari (turm. 1570)
  • Nathi Bai (turm. 1570)
  • Bhakkari Begum (turm. 1572)
  • Qasima Banu Begum (turm. 1575)
  • Gauhar-un-Nissa Begum
  • Bibi Daulat Shad
  • Rukmavati
  • several others
Farzandlari
Batafsil
Toʻliq nomi
Abu’l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar[7]
Vafotidan keyingi ismi
Arsh-Ashyani (Andoza:Lit)
Uy House of Babur
Sulola Timurid dynasty
Otasi Humayun
Onasi Hamida Banu Begum
Dini Sunni Islam[8][9]
Din-e-Illahi
Akbar-shoh

Boburning nabirasi, Humoyunning oʻgʻli, 13 yoshida taxtga oʻtirgan (1556-yil 15-fevral). Dastlab vaziri turkman Bayramxon otaliq yorda-mida taxtni boshqargan, soʻngra balogʻat yoshiga yetgach, mamlakatni qattiqqoʻllik bilan idora eta boshlagan. Saltanatini kengaytirish uchun muttasil kurashgan. Akbarshoh davrida Boburiylar saltanati shimolda Balxdan tortib janubda Godovari daryosigacha (Kashmir va Afgʻoniston hududlari bilan), gʻarbda Arabiston dengizidan sharqda Bengaliya qoʻltigʻigacha boʻlgan ulkan hududni qamrab olgan. Markazlashgan saltanat tuzish maqsadida 1574-yildan ichki islohotlar oʻtkazishga kirishadi: qoʻshin ustida nazoratni kuchaytiradi va uni qayta tashkil etib, yangidan qurollantiradi, mamlakatni yangi maʼmuriy tumanlarga boʻladi. Nikoh rish-talari orqali Rajput knyazliklari bilan aloqalarni mustahkamlagan. Rajputlar otliq qoʻshini Akbar qoʻshinining asosini tashkil qilgan. Yirik yer egalari — jogirdorlarning oʻzboshimchaligiga qarshi bir qancha chora-tadbirlarni oʻtkazgan, 1574-yil dehqonlar, sarkardalarga yer inʼom etish oʻrniga xazinadan ularga maosh toʻlashni, mamlakatdagi yerlardan soliq toʻplashni oʻz xizmatchilari zimmasiga yuklagan. Akbar aholi orasida diniy jihatdan oʻzaro birdamlikka erishish maqsadida hindlarni yuqori mansablarga tayinlay boshlagan va yangi din — „dini ilohiy“ joriy etgan. Bu din oʻzida is-lom, hinduizm, parsizm va jaynizm dinlarining qorishmasidan iborat boʻlgan. Akbar dunyoviy va diniy hokimiyatni oʻzida mujassamlashtirgan. Bu dinga eʼtiqod qilganlar Akbarning marhamatiga sazovor boʻlganlar. Keyinchalik Akbar vafotidan soʻng bu yangi din kichik bir mazhabga aylanib qolgan. Akbar dehqonchilik va savdoga katta eʼtibor bergan, Yevropa mamlakatlari bilan ham savdo-sotiq olib borgan. Akbar ilm-fan, sanʼatga ham homiylik qilgan. Akbarning vaziri va doʻsti Abulfazl Allomiy Akbar saltanati tarixiga oid „Akbar-noma“ asarini yozib qoddirgan. Akbar buyuk davlat arbobi, quvvai hofizasi kuchli, jasur, iqtidorli sarkarda boʻlgan.

Yana qarang

tahrir

Manbalar

tahrir
  1. "Akbar (Mughal emperor)". Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/11421/Akbar. <!--->
  2. Chandra 2005, s. 95
  3. Jahangir 1999, s. 437: "Ruqayya-Sultan Begam, the daughter of Mirza Hindal and wife of His Majesty Arsh-Ashyani [Akbar], had passed away in Akbarabad. She was His Majesty's chief wife. Since she did not have children, when Shahjahan was born His Majesty Arsh-Ashyani entrusted that 'unique pearl of the caliphate' to the begam's care, and she undertook to raise the prince. She departed this life at the age of eighty-four."
  4. Hindu Shah 1595–1612, s. 223: "Akbur, after this conquest, made pilgrimage to Khwaja Moyin-ood-Deen Chishty at Ajmere and returned to Agra; from whence he proceeded to visit the venerable Sheikh Sulim Chishty, in the village of Seekry. As all the king's children had hitherto died, he solicited the Sheikh's prayers, who consoled him, by assuring him he would soon have a son, who would live to a good old age. Shortly after, his favourite sooltana, being then pregnant, on Wednesday the 17th of Rubbee-ool-Awul, in the year 997 was delivered of a son, who was called Sulim."
  5. Mehta 1984, s. 222: "Bihari Mal gave rich dowry to his daughter and sent his son Bhagwan Das with a contingent of Rajput soldiers to escort his newly married sister to Agra as per Hindu custom. Akbar was deeply impressed by the highly dignified, sincere and princely conduct of his Rajput relations. He took Man Singh, the youthful son of Bhagwant Das into the royal service. Akbar was fascinated by the charm and accomplishments of his Rajput wife; he developed real love for her and raised her to the status of chief queen. She came to exercise profound impact on socio-cultural environment of the entire royal household and changed the lifestyle of Akbar. Salim (later Jahangir), heir to the throne, was born of this wedlock on 30th August, 1569."
  6. Ahloowalia 2009, s. 130
  7. Manba xatosi: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Britannica
  8. Black 2011, s. 245
  9. Eraly 2000, s. 189

Adabiyotlar

tahrir
  • OʻzME. Birinchi jild. Toshkent, 2000-yil
  • Qodirov P., Humoyun va Akbar, T., 1994.

Havolalar

tahrir
Akbar Jaloliddin Muhammad
Tavalludi: 14 October 1542 Vafoti: 27 October 1605
Humkdorlik unvoni
Oldingisi Mughal Emperor
1556–1605
Keyingisi