Turkiy sulolalar va davlatlar roʻyxati

Quyidagi jadvalda kelib chiqishi turkiylardan boʻlgan xalqlar asos solgan davlatlar roʻyxati keltirilgan. Bugungi kunda dunyo xaritasida 6 ta mustaqil turkiy davlatlar mavjud.

World map with present-day independent recognized Turkic countries highlighted in red

Kamida bitta davlat mustaqilligini tan olgan turkiy davlatlarTahrirlash

Bugungi mustaqil davlatlarTahrirlash

Nomi Yili Mustaqillik kuni
  Turkiya 1923 75 % Turklar 1923-yil 29-oktabr
  Ozarbayjon 1991 2009 — 91.6 % Ozarbayjonlar, 0.43 % Mesxetin turklari, 0.29 % Tatarlar.[1] 1918-yil 28-may
  Qozogʻiston 1991 63.1 % Qozoqlar, 2.9 % Oʻzbeklar, 1.4 % Uygʻurlar, 1.3 % Tatarlar, 0.6 % Mesxetin turklari, 0.5 % Ozarbayjonlar, 0.1 % Qirgʻizlar.[2] 1925-yil 19-iyun
  Qirgʻiziston 1991 70.9 % Qirgʻizlar, 14.3 % Oʻzbeklar, 0.9 % Uygʻurlar, 0.7 % Mesxetin turklari, 0.6 % Qozoqlar, 0.6 % Tatarlar, 0.3 % Ozarbayjonlar.[3] 1924-yil 14-oktabr
  Turkmaniston 1991 75.6 % Turkmanlar, 9.2 % Oʻzbeklar, 2.0 % Qozoqlar, 1.1 % Mesxetin turklari 0.7 % Tatarlar[4] 1991-yil 27-oktabr
  Oʻzbekiston 1991 71.4 % Oʻzbeklar, 4.1 % Qozoqlar, 2.4 % Tatarlar, 2.1 % Qoraqalpoqlar, 1 % Qrim tatarlari, 0.8 % Qirgʻizlar, 0.6 % Turkmanlar, 0.5 % Mesxetin turklari, 0.2 % Ozarbayjonlar, 0.2 % Uygʻurlar, 0.2 % Boshqirdlar.[5] 1924-yil 27-oktabr

Qisman tan olingan davlatTahrirlash

Faqat Turkiya tomonidan mustaqilligi tan olingan.

Nomi Yili
  Shimoliy Qibris[6] 1983 67.54 % Qibris turklari, 32.45 % turklar[manba kerak]

Rossiyaning federal sub’ektlari (respublikalari)Tahrirlash

Turkiy xalqlar koʻp boʻlgan Rossiyaning federal subyektlari
Nomi
  Boshqiriston 2010 — 29.5 % Boshqirdlar, 25.4 % Tatarlar, 2.7 % Chuvashlar
  Chuvashiston Chuvashiya 2010 — 67.7 % Chuvashlar, 2.8 % Tatarlar
  Qorachoy-Cherkesiya 2010 — 41.0 % Qorachoylar, 3.3 % No`g`aylar
  Tatariston 2010 — 53.2 % Tatarlar, 3.1 % Chuvashlar
  Tuva 2010 — 82 % Tuvalar, 0.4 % Xakaslar
  Saxa 2010 — 49.9 % Yoqutlar, 0.2 % Dolganlar, 0.9 % Tatarlar
Turkiy xalqlar ozchilik boʻlgan Rossiyaning federal subyektlari
Name
  Oltoy Respublikasi 2010 — 34.5 % Oltoylar, 6.2 % Qozoqlar
  Kabardin-Bolqoriya 2010 — 12.7 % Bolqorlar
  Qrim 2014 — 12.6 % Qrim tatarlar, 2.3 % Tatarlar
  Xakasiya 2010 — 12.1 % Xakaslar

Avtonom hududlarTahrirlash

Nomi
  Gagauziya Moldovada 2004 — 82.1 % Gagauzlar.[7]
  Qoraqalpogʻiston Oʻzbekistonda 36 % Oʻzbeklar, 32 % Qoraqalpoqlar, 25 % Qozoqlar[8]
  Naxichevan Avtonom Respublikasi Ozarbayjonda 99 % Ozarbayjonlar[9]
Xitoy
  Sinszyan-Uygʻur muxtor rayoni 2000 — 45.21 % Uygʻurlar, 6.74 % Qozoqlar, 0.86 % Qirgʻizlar, 0.066 % Oʻzbeklar, 0.024 % Tatarlar, 0.02 % Salarlar
  Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture 2010 — 64.68 % Uygʻurlar, 27.32 % Qirgʻizlar
  Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture 2015 — 26.77 % Qozoqlar, 17.45 % Uygʻurlar
  Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County 2000 — 34.01 % Qozoqlar, 0.16 % Uygʻurlar, 0.03 % Tatarlar
  Mori Kazakh Autonomous County Qozoqlar
  Xunhua Salar Autonomous County 2000 — 61.14 % Salarlar
  Jishishan Bonan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County Salarlar
  Sunan Yugur Autonomous County Sariq uygʻurlar
  Aksay Kazakh Autonomous County Qozoqlar

Tarixiy turkiy birlashmalar, sulolalar va davlatlarTahrirlash

Qabila birlashmalariTahrirlash

Tele Dingling Cumans Basmyl Chigils Alat Kutrigurs
Onogurs Sir-Kıvchak Toʻqqizoʻgʻuz Qipchoqlar Kankalis Yagma Yenisei Kyrgyz
Oʻgʻuzlar Sabirs Bulgars Shatuo Nushibi Duolu Xueyantuo
Toba Bulaqs Saragurs Yabaku Qarluqlar Chorni Klobuky Berendei

Royal clansTahrirlash

Turkiy sulolalar va davlatlarTahrirlash

Nomi Notes Yil Poytaxt Xarita
  Turk xoqonligi Bumin tomonidan 552-yilda asos solingan. 552-580 Otukan  
Gʻarbiy Turk xoqonligi 593-659 Nevkat and Suyob  
Sharqiy Turk xoqonligi 581-630
639-650
Ordu Baliq  
Sirtordush 628-646
Kangar Ittifoqi 659-750 Ulytau  
 Turk Shahi 665-850 Kabul  
Ikkinchi Turk xoqonligi Eltarish xoqon asos solgan. Undan oldin Birinchi Turk xoqonligi (552-630) va undan keyin Tan hukmronligi davri (630-682) bo'lgan. 682-744 Otukan  
Turkash xoqonligi Dulu Turklari tomonidan tashkil etilgan konfederatsiya. Gʻarbiy turk xoqonligi qulagandan so'ng mustaqil bo'lib, 699-yilda xoqonlikka asos soldilar. Turkash xoqonligi 766-yilda Qarluqlar tomonidan vayron qilingan. 699-766 Balasagun  
Kimek–Kipchak Konfederatsiyasi 743-1220 Khagan-Kimek Imekia  
 

Uygʻur hoqonligi

744-848 Ordu Baliq  
Oghuz Yabgu Davlati 750-1055 Yangikent  
Karluk Yabgu State 756-940 Suyab later Balasagun  
  Qoraxoniylar davlati 840-1212 Balasagun, Kashgar, Samarkand  
Yenisei Kyrgyz Khaganate 840-1207  
Kingdom of Qocho 856-1335 Gaochang, Beshbalik  
  Bijanaklar 860-1091  
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom 894-1036 Zhangye  
  Cuman–Kipchak confederation[10][11] 900-1220  
  Anatolian Beyliks 11th-16th century Many such as Karaman, Sinop, Adana, Alanya, Kahramanmaraş.  
Ahmadilis 1122-1209 Maragha  
Eldiguzids ca.1135-1225 Nakhchivan (city) and Hamadan
Salghurids 1148-1282 Fars Province
  Usmonlilar imperiyasi Turk imperiyasi sifatida ham tanilgan. Usmonli imperiyasi-1299-yilda shimoli-G'arbiy Anatoliyada O'g'uz Turklari asos solgan imperiya. 1299-1923 Söğüt 1299-1335, Bursa 1335-1413, Edirne 1413-1453, Istanbul 1453-1922  
Qora qoʻyunlilar davlati Kara Koyunlu turkman qabila Federatsiyasi edi. 1375-1468 Tabriz  
Emirate of Kasgharia Qashg'ar viloyatida qisqa yashagan amirlik. 1865-1877 Kashgar

YevropaTahrirlash

Nomi Notes Yil Poytaxt Xarita
Xazar xoqonligi Xazarlar-yarim ko'chmanchi turkiy xalq bo'lib, G'arbiy Gokturk xoqonligi parchalangandan keyin vujudga keladigan eng qudratli davlat edi. 6th-11th century Balanjar 650-720 ca., Samandar (sharar) 720s-750, Atil 750-ca.965-969  
  Great Bulgaria 632-668 Phanagoria 632-665  
  First Bulgarian Empire Tengrist Turkic pre-Christianization;[12] became Slavic post-Christianization 681-1018 Pliska 681-893, Preslav 893-972, Skopje 972-992, Ohrid 992-1018  
Volga-Kama Bulgʻoriyasi 7th century-1240s Bolghar, Bilär
Terter dynasty 1280-1323  

Yaqin Sharq va Shimoliy AfrikaTahrirlash

Name Notes Years Capital Xarita
Tuluniylar Tuluniylar turkiyzabon sulola bo'lib, Misrni, shuningdek, Suriyaning ko'p qismini boshqargan ilk mustaqil sulola edi. 868-905 al-Qatta'i  
Ixshidiylar Unga Abbosiylar xalifaligida Turk qul askari asos solgan. 935-969  
Burid Dynasty 1104-1154 Damashq  
Zengidlar Sulolasi O'g'uz Turklari asos solgan sulola 1127-1250 Halab  
  Mamluklar davlati Mamluk Sultonligining birinchi yarmini Qipchoq turkiyzabon Bahri sulolasi boshqargan. 1250-1389 Qohira  
Assaf dynasty Bayrut va Jbeil o'rtasidagi maydonni nazorat qildi. 1306-1591 Gʻazira

Magʻrib hududiTahrirlash

Name Notes Years Capital Xarita
Karamanli dynasty Qaramanli sulola 1711-yildan 1835-yilgacha Tripolitaniya (Tripoli va hozirgi Liviya atrofi) da hukmronlik qilgan sulola edi. Sulolaning asoschisi Pasha Ahmad Karamanli, Karamaniylar avlodidan bo'lgan 1711-1835 Tripoli  

Hindiston hududiTahrirlash

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Mamluk Dynasty (Delhi) Mamluk Dynasty was directed into Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave general from Central Asia. The Mamluk Dynasty ruled from 1206 to 1290.[13][14][15] 1206-1290 Dehli  
Qarlughid Dynasty 1224-1266 Gʻazna, Bomiyon
Khalji Dynasty 1290-1320 Dehli  
Tugʻloqiylar 1320-1414 Dehli  
Ilyas Shahi dynasty 1342-1487 Sonargaon  
Bahmani Sultanate 1347-1527 Gulbarga (1347-1425)
Bidar (1425-1527)
 
  Bengal Sultanate 1342-1538

1555-1576
Gaur
Pandua
Sonargaon
 
Malwa Sultanate 1392-1562 Dhar and Mandu
Bidar Sultanate 1489-1619  
Adil Shahi dynasty 1490-1686 Bijapur  
  Qutb Shahi Dynasty 1518-1687 Golconda / Hyderabad  
  Boburiylar davlati Unga keyingi davrlarda fors tilini qabul qilgan turkiy-mo'g'ul hukmdori Bobur asos solgan. 1526-1857 Agra 1526-1571, Fatehpur Sikri 1571-1585, Lahore 1585-1598, Agra 1598-1648, Shahjahanabad/Delhi 1648-1857  
Tarkhan Dynasty 1554-1591 Sindh
  Asaf Jahi Dynasty 1724-1948 Hyderabad  

Xitoylashgan turkiy sulolalarTahrirlash

The Shatuo Turks founded several sinicized dynasties in northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The official language of these dynasties was Chinese and they used Chinese titles and names.

Nomi Notes Yil Poytaxt Xarita
Great Yan Bosh An Lushan Tang sulolasiga qarshi isyon olib. 756-763 Luoyang 756-757, Yecheng 757-759, Fanyang 759, Luoyang 759-762
Later Tang 923-936 Daming County 923, Luoyang 923-936  
Later Jin[16] The Later Jin founder, Shi Jingtang, claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry. 936-947 Taiyuan 936, Luoyang 937, Kaifeng 937-947  
Later Han Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors; some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[17] 947-951 Kaifeng
Northern Han Same family as Later Han. Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors; some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[17] 951-979 Taiyuan

Turk-fors davlatlariTahrirlash

Turk-fors urf-odati boʻyicha tashkil etilgan davlatlar. Koʻplab Turk-Fors davlatlari hozirgi Sharqiy Turkiya, Eron, Iroq, Turkmaniston va Oʻzbekistonda tashkil etilgan.[18]

Nomi Yil Poytaxt Xarita
Gʻaznaviylar imperiyasi Turkiy mamlukdan kelib chiqqan keyinchalik forsiylashgan sulola.[19][20] 962-1186 Gʻazni 977-1163, Lohur 1163-1186  
Saljuqiylar davlati Oʻgʻuz turklarining[21][22] Qiniq qabilasi boshqargan davlat.[19][23][24][25] 1037-1194 Nishopur 1037-1043, Ray 1043-1051, Isfahon 1051-1118, Hamadon Gʻarbiy poytaxt 1118-1194, Marv Sharqiy poytaxt (1118-1153)  
Rûm sultonligi Forslashgan Oʻgʻuz turklari[26] 1077-1307 Iznik, Koʻniya  
Xorazmshohlar imperiyasi Ruled by a family of Turkic mamluk origin.[27] 1077-1231/1256 Gurganj 1077-1212, Samarqand 1212-1220, Gʻazna 1220-1221, Tabriz 1225-1231  
Oq qoʻyunli Oʻgʻuzlarning Bayandar urugʻidan boʻlgan qabila.[28] 1378-1501 Diyorbakir 1453-1471, Tabriz 1468 — 6-yanvar, 1478  

Turk-moʻgʻul davlatlariTahrirlash

Nomi Yillar Poytaxt Izohlar Xarita
Chigʻatoy ulusi 1225-1340s Olmaliq, Qarshi  
  Oltin Oʻrda 1240s-1502 Saroybotu Oltin Oʻrda dastlab moʻgʻullar davlati hisoblangan va keyichalik turkiylashgan.  
Sufi sulolasi 1361-1379
 Temuriylar davlati 1370-1506 Samarqand 1370-1505, Hirot 1505-1507 Amir Temur asos solgan oʻrta asrlarning buyuk davlati.  
  Buxoro xonligi 1428-1599 Samarqand 1501-1533, Buxoro 1533-1601
  Qozon xonligi 1438-1552 Qozon  
  Qrim xonligi 1441-1783 Boqchasaroy Chingizxonning nevarasi Joʻji avlodi boʻlgan Hoji I Girey asos solgan davlat.  
  Noʻgʻay oʻrda 1440s-1634 Saroychiq Chingizxonning avlodi Noʻgʻay xon tomonidan asos solingan davlat. [29]  
  Qozoq xonligi 1456-1847 Turkiston Joʻjixonning avlodi Kirayxon va Jonibekxonlar asos solgan davlat.  
Katta oʻrda 1466-1502 Saroy  
  Astraxan xonligi 1466-1556 Xojitaron  
Sibir xonligi 1490-1598 1493-yilgacha Tyumen, 1493-yildan Qashliq  
  Buxoro xonligi 1500-1785 Buxoro  
  Xiva xonligi Yadgorlar: 1511-1804[30] Qoʻngʻirotlar 1804-1920 Xiva  
Yorkent xonligi 1514-1705 Yorkent  
Argun sulolasi 1520-1554 Bukkur
Kichik Nogʻay oʻrda 1449 yoki 1557-1783 Voli Sarai
Belgorod oʻrdasi XVII-XVIII asrlar  
  Qoʻqon xonligi 1709-1876 Qoʻqon  
  Buxoro amirligi 1785-1920 Buxoro  

Vassal xonliklarTahrirlash

The following list is only of vassal khanates of Turkic origin, which were ruled by of another descent peoples.

Nomi Notes Yil Poytaxt Xarita
Qasim Khanate Turk-moʻgʻul davlati 1452-1681 Kasimov  
Kumul Khanate Turk-moʻgʻul davlati 1696-1930 Hami City  

Sobiq Muvaqqat hukumatlar va respublikalarTahrirlash

Nomi Notes Yil Xarita Poytaxt
  Provisional Government of Western Thrace later Independent Government of Western Thrace Republic of Western Thrace was a small, short-lived partially recognized republic established in Western Thrace from August 31 to October 25, 1913. It encompassed the area surrounded by the rivers Maritsa (Evros) in the east, Mesta (Nestos) in the west, the Rhodope Mountains in the north and the Aegean Sea in the south. Its total territory was c. 8.600 km².[31] 1913 Komotini
  Crimean People's Republic Crimean Peopleʼs Republic existed from December 1917 to January 1918 in Crimea. Crimean Peopleʼs Republic was the first Turkic and Muslim democratic republic in the history. 1917-1918 Bakhchysarai
  Idel-Ural State 1917-1918
  Alash Autonomy A provisional autonomous Kazakh-Kyrgyz administration. Later integrated into Soviet Union under Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic umbrella. 1917-1920 Semey
Fayl:Republic of Aras flag.jpg Republic of Aras 1918-1919 Nakhchivan (city)
  Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus 1918-1919 Kars
  Azerbaijan Democratic Republic 1918-1920   Ganja, Azerbaijan until Sep 1918, Baku
  Government of the Grand National Assembly Government of the Grand National Assembly, also called Ankara Government was a provisional and revolutionary Turkish government based in Ankara during the Turkish War of Independence. It was succeeded by Turkey after the Treaty of Lausanne. 1920-1923   Ankara
  People's Republic of Tannu Tuva 1921-1944   Kyzyl
  First East Turkestan Republic First East Turkestan Republic was a short-lived breakaway would-be Islamic republic founded in 1933. It was centered on the city of Kashgar in what is today the People's Republic of China-administered Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. 1933-1934   Kashgar
  Republic of Hatay Hatay State, also known informally as the Republic of Hatay, was a transitional political entity that existed from September 7, 1938, to June 29, 1939, in the territory of the Sanjak of Alexandretta of the French Mandate of Syria. The state was transformed de jure into the Hatay Province of Turkey on July 7, 1939, de facto joining the country on July 23, 1939. 1938-1939   Antokiya
  East Turkistan Republic 1944-1949   Ghulja
  Azerbaijan People's Government Established in Iranian Azerbaijan, the APGʻs capital was the city of Tabriz. Its establishment and demise were a part of the Iran crisis, which was a precursor to the Cold War. 1945-1946   Tabriz
  Turkish Cypriot General Committee[32] 1963-1967   Nicosia
  Provisional Cypriot Turkish Administration[32] 1967-1974   Nicosia
  Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration 1974-1975   Nicosia
  Turkish Federated State of Cyprus Was declared in 1975 and existing until 1983. It was not recognized by the international community. It was succeeded by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 1975-1983   Nicosia

Sovet respublikalariTahrirlash

Nomi Izoh Yil Xarita Poytaxt
  Xorazm Xalq Sovet Respublikasi 1920-1924   Xiva
  Buxoro Xalq Sovet Respublikasi 1920-1924   Buxoro
  Ozarbayjon SSR 1920-1991   Boku
  Oʻzbekiston SSR 1924-1991   Samarqand 1924-1930, Toshkent 1930-1991
  Turkmaniston SSR 1924-1991   Ashxobod
  Qozogʻiston SSR 1936-1991   Olmaota
  Qirgʻiziston SSR 1936-1991   Bishkek

Avtanom Sovet respublikalariTahrirlash

Nomi Izohlar Yillar Xarita Poytaxt
  Turkiston Avtonom Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi 1918-1924   Toshkent
  Bashkir ASSR 1919-1990 Ufa
  Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic 1920-1925 Orenburg
  Tatariston Avtonom Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi 1920-1990 Qozon
  Yakut ASSR 1922-1991   Yakutsk
  Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1921-1924   Vladikavkaz
  Naxichevan Avtonom Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi 1921-1990   Naxichevan (shahar)
  Kazak Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic 1925-1936   Olmaota
  Chuvash ASSR 1925-1992 Cheboksari
  Karakalpak ASSR 1932-1992 Nukus
  Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1936-1991   Nalchik
  Kabardin Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1944-1957
  Crimean ASSR 1921-1945 Simferopol
  Tuvan ASSR 1961-1992  
  Gorno-Altai Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1990-1992   Gorno-Altaysk

Sovet Ittifoqining avtonom viloyatlariTahrirlash

Nomi Izohlar Yillar Xarita Poytaxt
Chuvash avtonom viloyati 1920-1925 Cheboksari
Kabardino-Balkar avtonom viloyati 1921-1936 Nalchik
Qorachoy-Cherkess avtonom viloyati 1922-1926 Cherkessk
Togʻli-Oltoy avtonom viloyati 1922-1991
Qora-Qirgʻiz avtonom viloyati 1924-1936 Bishkek
Qoraqalpoq avtonom viloyati 1925-1932 To‘rtko‘l
Qorachoy avtonom viloyati 1926-1957   Mikoyan Shakhar
Xakas avtonom viloyati 1930-1992
Tuva avtonom viloyati 1944-1961   Qizil

Shuningdek qarangTahrirlash

ManbalarTahrirlash

  1. [1]
  2. Demographics of Kazakhstan.
  3. Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
  4. Demographics of Turkmenistan
  5. Demographics of Uzbekistan
  6. Recognized only by Turkey and the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, see Cyprus dispute.
  7. Gagauzia
  8. Der Fischer Weltalmanach 2011, Artikel „Karakalpakstan“, S. 496
  9. http://pop-stat.mashke.org/azerbaijan-ethnic2009.htm
  10. Encyclopedia of European peoples, Vol.1, Ed. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, (Infobase Publishing Inc., 2006), 475; „The Kipchaks were a loose tribal confederation of Turkics…“.
  11. Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185-1365, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6; „..two Turkic confederacies, the Kipchaks and the Cumans, had merged by the twelfth century.“.
  12. Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500–700, 2011. — s. 308. 
  13. Walsh, pp. 68-70
  14. Anzalone, p. 100
  15. Sen, Sailendra A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books, 2013. — s. 72–80. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. 
  16. Wudai Shi, ch. 75. Considering the father was originally called Nieliji without a surname, the fact that his patrilineal ancestors all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Shi Jingtang became a „Chinese“ emperor. Shi Jingtang actually claimed to be a descendant of Chinese historical figures Shi Que and Shi Fen, and insisted that his ancestors went westwards towards non-Han Chinese area during the political chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty in the early 3rd century.
  17. 17,0 17,1 According to Old History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 99, and New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 10. Liu Zhiyuan was of Shatuo origin. According to Wudai Huiyao, vol. 1 Liu Zhiyuanʼs great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of Emperor Ming of Han
  18. Lewis, Bernard. „Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire“, p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
  19. 19,0 19,1 M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK Arxivlandi 2007-03-11 Wayback Machine saytida.): "… here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints …"
  20. Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "… „Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. …“
  21. Jonathan Dewald, „Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World“, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2004, p. 24
  22. Jackson, P. (2002). "Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens". Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies) 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75. 
  23. K.A. Luther, „Alp Arslān“ in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "… Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk …"
  24. Encyclopædia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "… Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship …"
  25. O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK Arxivlandi 2012-01-22 Wayback Machine saytida.)
  26. 1.Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire, 29; „Even when the land of Rum became politically independent, it remained a colonial extension of Turco-Persian culture which had its centers in Iran and Central Asia“, „The literature of Seljuk Anatolia was almost entirely in Persian…“.
  27. M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
  28. C.E. Bosworth and R. Bulliet, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual , Columbia University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-231-10714-5, p. 275.
  29. Khodarkovsky, Russiaʼs Steppe Frontier p. 9
  30. Compiled after Y. Bregel, ed. (1999), Firdaws al-iqbal; History of Khorezm. Leiden: Brill.
  31. „Panayotis D. Cangelaris – The Western Thrace Autonomous Government "Muhtariyet" Issue (1913) Philatelic Exhibit“. Cangelaris.com. Qaraldi: 25-Sentabr 2016-yil.
  32. 32,0 32,1 [2] KIBRIS’TA ESKİ YÖNETİMLER

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